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README

1# $FreeBSD$
2
3- TinyBSD
4
5You must read this to know how to build embedded systems with TinyBSD.
6
7- TinyBSD files
8
9TinyBSD's creation conf files are available under /usr/src/tools/tools/tinybsd/conf 
10and the script are available under /usr/src/tools/tools/tinybsd/tinybsd.
11
12The system has been entirely based on the ease of image customization from
13PicoBSD, and the compilation script based on NanoBSD's.
14
15# ls /usr/src/tools/tools/tinybsd/conf
16bridge/   default/  firewall/ minimal/  vpn/      wireless/  wrap/
17
18We have these six pre configured images to build. On each directory we have 3 
19main files in there. Let's see what each of them are:
20
21# ls /usr/src/tools/tools/tinybsd/conf/default
22TINYBSD            etc/               tinybsd.basefiles
23
24TINYBSD: Just like PicoBSD had its kernel previously compiled, we call ours
25TINYBSD.
26
27# more TINYBSD
28
29machine         i386
30cpu             I486_CPU
31cpu             I586_CPU
32cpu             I686_CPU
33ident           TINYBSD
34
35#To statically compile in device wiring instead of /boot/device.hints
36#hints          "GENERIC.hints"         #Default places to look for devices.
37...
38
39As you can see, it's a kernel file identical to your system's, leaving only
40the task of enabling or disabling options, according to your needs.
41
42tinybsd.basefiles: Just like PicoBSD had its crunch.conf file to define which
43files we'd want the new system to have, in this one we'll have all files to be
44put into our embedded system, already having all available files for running
45the system well. Put in or take out the files you need according to your
46needs. Let's see it:
47
48# more tinybsd.basefiles
49# contents of ${WORKDIR}/boot
50boot/boot0
51boot/boot1
52boot/boot2
53boot/defaults/loader.conf
54boot/device.hints
55...
56# contents of ${WORKDIR}/bin
57bin/[:bin/test
58bin/cat
59bin/chflags
60bin/chio
61bin/chmod
62...
63
64And so on. In case you'd want to add the binary "setkey", sitting on
65/usr/sbin, you'd only need to add the following line inside the /usr/sbin part
66of the file, like this:
67
68usr/sbin/pw
69usr/sbin/pwd_mkdb
70usr/sbin/setkey
71
72tinybsd.ports: Here you can add the applications from the FreeBSD Ports Collection 
73which you want TinyBSD ports system to install in your embedded system. You whould 
74list one application per line, mentioning its category and name, like the examples:
75www/mini_httpd
76net-mgmt/rate 
77
78etc/: This is the directory where you can put your custom /etc configuration.
79
80# ls /usr/src/tools/tools/tinybsd/tinybsd
81tinybsd
82
83tinybsd: This is the script that builds the entire system. You'll hardly
84need to modify it at all. The idea is for it to create a temporary work
85directory for it to create the entire system tree. Once done, it'll copy all
86files listed in tinybsd.basefiles to this tree, then it'll compile a new
87kernel using the definitions in the TINYBSD file, and finally copy the library
88dependencies the binaries will have. We'll then populate /etc on that
89temporary tree and put in a few important default configurations inside on
90/usr/src/tools/tools/tinybsd/conf/YOURCHOICE/etc/ like rc.conf, fstab and others.
91
92Finally, we create an empty image, according to your media's specifications,
93passed on to the script on the command line, and copy the entire temporary
94work tree into the image mounted on /mnt.
95
96- Running TinyBSD
97
98Now that we know how it works, it's time for us to build our own image. Let's
99do that step-by-step.
100
1011) Choose what pre-configured image you want.
102
1032) Edit the TINYBSD kernel file and add/remove all options you'll need.
104
1053) Edit the tinybsd.basefiles file and add/remove all binaries you'll need on
106your system.
107
1084) Copy all your /etc configuration which you want to conf/YOURIMAGE/etc/.
109
1105) Gather the right information on your destination media. To do that, plug in
111the device on the system and fetch the information using diskinfo(8):
112
113# diskinfo -v /dev/ad2
114ad2
115        512             # sectorsize
116        20060135424     # mediasize in bytes (19G)
117        39179952        # mediasize in sectors
118        38869           # Cylinders according to firmware.
119        16              # Heads according to firmware.
120        63              # Sectors according to firmware.
121
122To create my image, I'll need to know the media size in sectors, Heads
123according to firmware and Sectors according to firmware. Optionally, you may
124define the name of the generated image's file, but if you don't, it'll be
125named tinybsd.bin. Now that we have gathered these informations through
126diskinfo, all we need to do is run tinybsd. Remember that it has 3
127parameters plus 1 optional, and if you don't pass on the required ones, the
128script will warn you about it:
129
130# /usr/src/tools/tools/tinybsd/tinybsd
131Woops!
132   Usage: tinybsd <mediasize in sectors> <heads according to firmware> 
133   <sectors according to firmware> <conf> [<tinybsd image name>]
134
135   Example: tinybsd 62592 4 32
136
137	or
138
139   /usr/src/tools/tools/tinybsd/tinybsd 62592 4 32 wireless
140
141   Run diskinfo(8) -v against your CF device to get correct information
142   about your disk.
143
144Passing on the parameters correctly:
145
146# /usr/src/tools/tools/tinybsd/tinybsd 39179952 16 63 wireless
147Creating directory hierarchy...
148./bin missing (created)
149./boot missing (created)
150./boot/defaults missing (created)
151./boot/kernel missing (created)
152./boot/modules missing (created)
153./dev missing (created)
154./etc missing (created)
155...
156
157In the end, we have the generated tinybsd.bin image. Now we have to copy it to
158its final destination:
159
160# dd if=/usr/src/tools/tools/tinybsd/tinybsd.bin of=/dev/ad2
161
162Boot up your new embedded system and log on it. If you're ever going to modify
163it, you must first remount the root slice as read-write, as it operates by
164default on read-only mode, saving disk writes and preventing data-loss in case
165of power failures. To mount it for read-write, use mount:
166
167# mount -u -o rw /
168
169Once you're done, return it to read-only mode:
170
171# mount -u -o ro /
172
173The first thing you need to do after logging for the first time, is to set a
174root password. By default, it's created with no root password.
175
176If you run df(1), you'll see the following partitions:
177
178# df
179Filesystem 1K-blocks  Used Avail Capacity  Mounted on
180/dev/ad0a      29359 19446  7565    72%    /
181devfs              1     1     0   100%    /dev
182procfs             4     4     0   100%    /proc
183/dev/md0        3694   114  3286     3%    /var
184/dev/md1        19566    6 17996     0%    /tmp 
185
186As you can see, /var and /tmp are mounted on /dev/md0 and /dev/md1
187respectively, using memory disk devices. That's because both /var and /tmp are
188write-intensive, and as our system works mostly on read-only mode, we'd suffer
189with writing problems there, so the memory disk approach works fine. On the
190other hand, whenever you reboot the system, those directories' contents
191(including logs on /var/log) will be lost. If you need to keep the contents of
192those directories, I suggest you to always upload them to another box.
193
194The configuration line that fires up the system script to create /var as a
195memory disk partition is "varmfs="YES"", inside
196/etc/rc.conf. Besides mounting /var as a memory disk device, it also populates
197its tree with the necessary subdirectories. Initially, /var is created on
198memory using only 32MB of space, and that's usually enough. Although, if you
199find it necessary to tweak that configuration, you may edit this line of
200/etc/rc.conf:
201
202varsize="32m"
203
204Change 32m to whatever value you see fit (in MBytes). Take care of not using
205your entire memory for /var.
206
207- Ports and TinyBSD
208
209You can also install ports on the new system via ports. For that, you'll need
210to set the PREFIX environment variable to the image's destination path. Let's
211assume you want to install apache on the newly-created image. For that, I'd do
212this:
213
214# mdconfig -a -t vnode -f /usr/src/tools/tools/tinybsd/tinybsd.bin -u 0
215
216That uses mdconfig to enable the memory disk 0.
217
218# mount /dev/md0a /mnt
219
220Now we've mounted the image on the temporary directory /mnt. Let's then
221install apache via ports:
222
223# cd /usr/ports/www/apache13
224# make install PREFIX=/mnt/usr/local
225===>  Vulnerability check disabled
226>> apache_1.3.31.tar.gz doesn't seem to exist in /usr/ports/distfiles/.
227>> Attempting to fetch from http://www.apache.org/dist/httpd/.
228...
229      This port has installed the following startup scripts which may cause
230      these network services to be started at boot time.
231/mnt/usr/local/etc/rc.d/apache.sh
232....
233
234Once the install is finished, let's verify that apache has indeed been
235properly installed under our /mnt directory:
236
237# cd /mnt/usr/local/sbin
238# ls -lga httpd
239-rwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  252439 Jul 14 15:31 httpd
240
241Our software has been successfully installed. You must notice that at the end
242of the install, it shows the full path for the PREFIX variable we passed it.
243The problem with that is that at boot-time, your system is going to look for
244it under /mnt instead of /usr. So we need to edit apache's initialization
245script under /usr/local/etc/rc.d (apache.sh) and remove all instances of
246"/mnt" in it.
247
248WARNING: A very important thing to care about are dependencies. Before
249installing anything, check to see if it has any dependencies, and that you'll
250have enough disk space on the destination system for both the application
251you're installing and its dependencies.
252
253- Script download
254
255TinyBSD is still a project under heavy development, both the script itself and
256its documentation. 
257
258In case you'd like to try or use the BETA version of the script, feel free to
259download it from the project's official site at http://code.google.com/p/tinybsd/.
260