1GNU coreutils NEWS                                    -*- outline -*-
2
3* Noteworthy changes in release ?.? (????-??-??) [?]
4
5** Bug fixes
6
7  cp now correctly copies files with a hole at the end of the file,
8  and extents allocated beyond the apparent size of the file.
9  That combination resulted in the trailing hole not being reproduced.
10  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.10]
11
12  ls no longer prematurely wraps lines when printing short file names.
13  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.1.0]
14
15  shred again uses defined patterns for all iteration counts.
16  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.93]
17
18  sort --debug -b now correctly marks the matching extents for keys
19  that specify an offset for the first field.
20  [bug introduced with the --debug feature in coreutils-8.6]
21
22** New commands
23
24  base32 is added to complement the existing base64 command,
25  and encodes and decodes printable text as per RFC 4648.
26
27** New features
28
29  md5sum now supports the --ignore-missing option to allow
30  verifying a subset of files given a larger list of checksums.
31  This also affects sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum and sha512sum.
32
33  printf now supports the '%q' format to print arguments in a form that
34  is reusable by most shells, with non-printable characters escaped
35  with the POSIX proposed $'...' syntax.
36
37** Changes in behavior
38
39  base64 no longer supports hex or oct --wrap parameters,
40  thus better supporting decimals with leading zeros.
41
42  date --iso-8601 now uses +00:00 timezone format rather than +0000.
43  The standard states to use this "extended" format throughout a timestamp.
44
45  df now prefers sources towards the root of a device when
46  eliding duplicate bind mounted entries.
47
48  ls now quotes file names unambiguously and appropriate for use in a shell,
49  when outputting to a terminal.
50
51** Improvements
52
53  All utilities now quote user supplied arguments in error strings,
54  which avoids confusing error messages in the presence of '\r' chars etc.
55
56  md5sum now ensures a single line per file for status on standard output,
57  by using a '\' at the start of the line, and replacing any newlines with '\n'.
58  This also affects sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum and sha512sum.
59
60  dircolors now supports globbing of TERM entries in its database.
61  For example "TERM *256color*" is now supported.
62
63  du no longer stats all mount points at startup, only doing so
64  upon detection of a directory cycle.
65  [issue introduced in coreutils-8.20]
66
67  ls -w0 is now interpreted as no limit on the length of the outputted line.
68
69  stat -f --format=%T now reports the file system type for new Linux
70  pseudo file systems "bpf_fs", "btrfs_test", "nsfs", "overlayfs"
71  and "tracefs", and remote file system "acfs".
72
73
74* Noteworthy changes in release 8.24 (2015-07-03) [stable]
75
76** Bug fixes
77
78  dd supports more robust SIGINFO/SIGUSR1 handling for outputting statistics.
79  Previously those signals may have inadvertently terminated the process.
80
81  df --local no longer hangs with inaccessible remote mounts.
82  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.21]
83
84  du now silently ignores all directory cycles due to bind mounts.
85  Previously it would issue a warning and exit with a failure status.
86  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.1 and partially fixed in coreutils-8.23]
87
88  chroot again calls chroot(DIR) and chdir("/"), even if DIR is "/".
89  This handles separate bind mounted "/" trees, and environments
90  depending on the implicit chdir("/").
91  [bugs introduced in coreutils-8.23]
92
93  cp no longer issues an incorrect warning about directory hardlinks when a
94  source directory is specified multiple times.  Now, consistent with other
95  file types, a warning is issued for source directories with duplicate names,
96  or with -H the directory is copied again using the symlink name.
97
98  factor avoids writing partial lines, thus supporting parallel operation.
99  [the bug dates back to the initial implementation]
100
101  head, od, split, tac, tail, and wc no longer mishandle input from files in
102  /proc and /sys file systems that report somewhat-incorrect file sizes.
103
104  mkdir --parents -Z now correctly sets the context for the last component,
105  even if the parent directory exists and has a different default context.
106  [bug introduced with the -Z restorecon functionality in coreutils-8.22]
107
108  numfmt no longer outputs incorrect overflowed values seen with certain
109  large numbers, or with numbers with increased precision.
110  [bug introduced when numfmt was added in coreutils-8.21]
111
112  numfmt now handles leading zeros correctly, not counting them when
113  settings processing limits, and making them optional with floating point.
114  [bug introduced when numfmt was added in coreutils-8.21]
115
116  paste no longer truncates output for large input files.  This would happen
117  for example with files larger than 4GiB on 32 bit systems with a '\n'
118  character at the 4GiB position.
119  [the bug dates back to the initial implementation]
120
121  rm indicates the correct number of arguments in its confirmation prompt,
122  on all platforms.  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.22]
123
124  shuf -i with a single redundant operand, would crash instead of issuing
125  a diagnostic.  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.22]
126
127  tail releases inotify resources when unused.  Previously it could exhaust
128  resources with many files, or with -F if files were replaced many times.
129  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
130
131  tail -f again follows changes to a file after it's renamed.
132  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
133
134  tail --follow no longer misses changes to files if those files were
135  replaced before inotify watches were created.
136  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
137
138  tail --follow consistently outputs all data for a truncated file.
139  [bug introduced in the beginning]
140
141  tail --follow=name correctly outputs headers for multiple files
142  when those files are being created or renamed.
143  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
144
145** New features
146
147  chroot accepts the new --skip-chdir option to not change the working directory
148  to "/" after changing into the chroot(2) jail, thus retaining the current wor-
149  king directory.  The new option is only permitted if the new root directory is
150  the old "/", and therefore is useful with the --group and --userspec options.
151
152  dd accepts a new status=progress level to print data transfer statistics
153  on stderr approximately every second.
154
155  numfmt can now process multiple fields with field range specifications similar
156  to cut, and supports setting the output precision with the --format option.
157
158  split accepts a new --separator option to select a record separator character
159  other than the default newline character.
160
161  stty allows setting the "extproc" option where supported, which is
162  a useful setting with high latency links.
163
164  sync no longer ignores arguments, and syncs each specified file, or with the
165  --file-system option, the file systems associated with each specified file.
166
167  tee accepts a new --output-error option to control operation with pipes
168  and output errors in general.
169
170** Changes in behavior
171
172  df no longer suppresses separate exports of the same remote device, as
173  these are generally explicitly mounted.  The --total option does still
174  suppress duplicate remote file systems.
175  [suppression was introduced in coreutils-8.21]
176
177  mv no longer supports moving a file to a hardlink, instead issuing an error.
178  The implementation was susceptible to races in the presence of multiple mv
179  instances, which could result in both hardlinks being deleted.  Also on case
180  insensitive file systems like HFS, mv would just remove a hardlinked 'file'
181  if called like `mv file File`.  The feature was added in coreutils-5.0.1.
182
183  numfmt --from-unit and --to-unit options now interpret suffixes as SI units,
184  and IEC (power of 2) units are now specified by appending 'i'.
185
186  tee will exit early if there are no more writable outputs.
187
188  tee does not treat the file operand '-' as meaning standard output any longer,
189  for better conformance to POSIX.  This feature was added in coreutils-5.3.0.
190
191  timeout --foreground no longer sends SIGCONT to the monitored process,
192  which was seen to cause intermittent issues with GDB for example.
193
194** Improvements
195
196  cp,install,mv will convert smaller runs of NULs in the input to holes,
197  and cp --sparse=always avoids speculative preallocation on XFS for example.
198
199  cp will read sparse files more efficiently when the destination is a
200  non regular file.  For example when copying a disk image to a device node.
201
202  mv will try a reflink before falling back to a standard copy, which is
203  more efficient when moving files across BTRFS subvolume boundaries.
204
205  stat and tail now know about IBRIX.  stat -f --format=%T now reports the file
206  system type, and tail -f uses polling for files on IBRIX file systems.
207
208  wc -l processes short lines much more efficiently.
209
210  References from --help and the man pages of utilities have been corrected
211  in various cases, and more direct links to the corresponding online
212  documentation are provided.
213
214
215* Noteworthy changes in release 8.23 (2014-07-18) [stable]
216
217** Bug fixes
218
219  chmod -Rc no longer issues erroneous warnings for files with special bits set.
220  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.0]
221
222  cp -a, mv, and install --preserve-context, once again set the correct SELinux
223  context for existing directories in the destination.  Previously they set
224  the context of an existing directory to that of its last copied descendent.
225  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.22]
226
227  cp -a, mv, and install --preserve-context, no longer seg fault when running
228  with SELinux enabled, when copying from file systems that return an error
229  when reading the SELinux context for a file.
230  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.22]
231
232  cp -a and mv now preserve xattrs of symlinks copied across file systems.
233  [bug introduced with extended attribute preservation feature in coreutils-7.1]
234
235  date could crash or go into an infinite loop when parsing a malformed TZ="".
236  [bug introduced with the --date='TZ="" ..' parsing feature in coreutils-5.3.0]
237
238  dd's ASCII and EBCDIC conversions were incompatible with common practice and
239  with POSIX, and have been corrected as follows.  First, conv=ascii now
240  implies conv=unblock, and conv=ebcdic and conv=ibm now imply conv=block.
241  Second, the translation tables for dd conv=ascii and conv=ebcdic have been
242  corrected as shown in the following table, where A is the ASCII value, W is
243  the old, wrong EBCDIC value, and E is the new, corrected EBCDIC value; all
244  values are in octal.
245
246      A   W   E
247     041 117 132
248     133 112 255
249     135 132 275
250     136 137 232
251     174 152 117
252     176 241 137
253     313 232 152
254     325 255 112
255     345 275 241
256
257  [These dd bugs were present in "the beginning".]
258
259  df has more fixes related to the newer dynamic representation of file systems:
260  Duplicates are elided for virtual file systems like tmpfs.
261  Details for the correct device are output for points mounted multiple times.
262  Placeholder values are output for inaccessible file systems, rather than
263  than error messages or values for the wrong file system.
264  [These bugs were present in "the beginning".]
265
266  df now outputs all appropriate entries in the presence of bind mounts.
267  On some systems, entries would have been incorrectly elided due to
268  them being considered "dummy" mounts.
269  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.22]
270
271  du now silently ignores directory cycles introduced with bind mounts.
272  Previously it would issue a warning and exit with a failure status.
273  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.1]
274
275  head --bytes=-N and --lines=-N now handles devices more
276  consistently, not ignoring data from virtual devices like /dev/zero,
277  or on BSD systems data from tty devices.
278  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.0.1]
279
280  head --bytes=-N - no longer fails with a bogus diagnostic when stdin's
281  seek pointer is not at the beginning.
282  [bug introduced with the --bytes=-N feature in coreutils-5.0.1]
283
284  head --lines=-0, when the input does not contain a trailing '\n',
285  now copies all input to stdout.  Previously nothing was output in this case.
286  [bug introduced with the --lines=-N feature in coreutils-5.0.1]
287
288  id, when invoked with no user name argument, now prints the correct group ID.
289  Previously, in the default output format, it would print the default group ID
290  in the password database, which may be neither real nor effective.  For e.g.,
291  when run set-GID, or when the database changes outside the current session.
292  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.1]
293
294  ln -sf now replaces symbolic links whose targets can't exist.  Previously
295  it would display an error, requiring --no-dereference to avoid the issue.
296  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.3.0]
297
298  ln -sr '' F no longer segfaults.  Now works as expected.
299  [bug introduced with the --relative feature in coreutils-8.16]
300
301  numfmt now handles blanks correctly in all unibyte locales.  Previously
302  in locales where character 0xA0 is a blank, numfmt would mishandle it.
303  [bug introduced when numfmt was added in coreutils-8.21]
304
305  ptx --format long option parsing no longer falls through into the --help case.
306  [bug introduced in TEXTUTILS-1_22i]
307
308  ptx now consistently trims whitespace when processing multiple files.
309  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
310
311  seq again generates correct output with start or end values = -0.
312  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.20.]
313
314  shuf --repeat no longer dumps core if the input is empty.
315  [bug introduced with the --repeat feature in coreutils-8.22]
316
317  sort when using multiple threads now avoids undefined behavior with mutex
318  destruction, which could cause deadlocks on some implementations.
319  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.6]
320
321  tail -f now uses polling mode for VXFS to cater for its clustered mode.
322  [bug introduced with inotify support added in coreutils-7.5]
323
324** New features
325
326  od accepts a new option: --endian=TYPE to handle inputs with different byte
327  orders, or to provide consistent output on systems with disparate endianness.
328
329  configure accepts the new option --enable-single-binary to build all the
330  selected programs in a single binary called "coreutils".  The selected
331  programs can still be called directly using symlinks to "coreutils" or
332  shebangs with the option --coreutils-prog= passed to this program.  The
333  install behavior is determined by the option --enable-single-binary=symlinks
334  or --enable-single-binary=shebangs (the default).  With the symlinks option,
335  you can't make a second symlink to any program because that will change the
336  name of the called program, which is used by coreutils to determine the
337  desired program.  The shebangs option doesn't suffer from this problem, but
338  the /proc/$pid/cmdline file might not be updated on all the platforms.  The
339  functionality of each program is not affected but this single binary will
340  depend on all the required dynamic libraries even to run simple programs.
341  If you desire to build some tools outside the single binary file, you can
342  pass the option --enable-single-binary-exceptions=PROG_LIST with the comma
343  separated list of programs you want to build separately.  This flag
344  considerably reduces the overall size of the installed binaries which makes
345  it suitable for embedded system.
346
347** Changes in behavior
348
349  chroot with an argument of "/" no longer implicitly changes the current
350  directory to "/", allowing changing only user credentials for a command.
351
352  chroot --userspec will now unset supplemental groups associated with root,
353  and instead use the supplemental groups of the specified user.
354
355  cut -d$'\n' again outputs lines identified in the --fields list, having
356  not done so in v8.21 and v8.22.  Note using this non portable functionality
357  will result in the delayed output of lines.
358
359  ls with none of LS_COLORS or COLORTERM environment variables set,
360  will now honor an empty or unknown TERM environment variable,
361  and not output colors even with --colors=always.
362
363** Improvements
364
365  chroot has better --userspec and --group look-ups, with numeric IDs never
366  causing name look-up errors.  Also look-ups are first done outside the chroot,
367  in case the look-up within the chroot fails due to library conflicts etc.
368
369  install now allows the combination of the -D and -t options.
370
371  numfmt supports zero padding of numbers using the standard printf
372  syntax of a leading zero, for example --format="%010f".
373  Also throughput was improved by up to 800% by avoiding redundant processing.
374
375  shred now supports multiple passes on GNU/Linux tape devices by rewinding
376  the tape before each pass, avoids redundant writes to empty files,
377  uses direct I/O for all passes where possible, and attempts to clear
378  inode storage used for small files on some file systems.
379
380  split avoids unnecessary input buffering, immediately writing input to output
381  which is significant with --filter or when writing to fifos or stdout etc.
382
383  stat and tail work better with HFS+, HFSX, LogFS and ConfigFS.  stat -f
384  --format=%T now reports the file system type, and tail -f now uses inotify,
385  rather than the default of issuing a warning and reverting to polling.
386
387
388* Noteworthy changes in release 8.22 (2013-12-13) [stable]
389
390** Bug fixes
391
392  df now processes the mount list correctly in the presence of unstatable
393  mount points.  Previously it may have failed to output some mount points.
394  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.21]
395
396  df now processes symbolic links and relative paths to special files containing
397  a mounted file system correctly.  Previously df displayed the statistics about
398  the file system the file is stored on rather than the one inside.
399  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
400
401  df now processes disk device nodes correctly in the presence of bind mounts.
402  Now df shows the base mounted file system rather than the last one mounted.
403  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
404
405  install now removes the target file if the strip program failed for any
406  reason.  Before, that file was left behind, sometimes even with wrong
407  permissions.
408  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
409
410  ln --relative now updates existing symlinks correctly.  Previously it based
411  the relative link on the dereferenced path of an existing link.
412  [This bug was introduced when --relative was added in coreutils-8.16.]
413
414  ls --recursive will no longer exit with "serious" exit code (2), if there
415  is an error reading a directory not specified on the command line.
416  [Bug introduced in coreutils-5.3.0]
417
418  mkdir, mkfifo, and mknod now work better when creating a file in a directory
419  with a default ACL whose umask disagrees with the process's umask, on a
420  system such as GNU/Linux where directory ACL umasks override process umasks.
421  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.0]
422
423  mv will now replace empty directories in the destination with directories
424  from the source, when copying across file systems.
425  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
426
427  od -wN with N larger than 64K on a system with 32-bit size_t would
428  print approximately 2*N bytes of extraneous padding.
429  [Bug introduced in coreutils-7.0]
430
431  rm -I now prompts for confirmation before removing a write protected file.
432  [Bug introduced in coreutils-6.8]
433
434  shred once again uses direct I/O on systems requiring aligned buffers.
435  Also direct I/O failures for odd sized writes at end of file are now handled.
436  [The "last write" bug was introduced in coreutils-5.3.0 but masked
437   by the alignment bug introduced in coreutils-6.0]
438
439  tail --retry -f now waits for the files specified to appear.  Before, tail
440  would immediately exit when such a file is initially inaccessible.
441  [This bug was introduced when inotify support was added in coreutils-7.5]
442
443  tail -F has improved handling of symlinks.  Previously tail didn't respond
444  to the symlink target (re)appearing after being (re)created.
445  [This bug was introduced when inotify support was added in coreutils-7.5]
446
447** New features
448
449  cp, install, mkdir, mknod, mkfifo and mv now support "restorecon"
450  functionality through the -Z option, to set the SELinux context
451  appropriate for the new item location in the file system.
452
453  csplit accepts a new option: --suppressed-matched, to elide the lines
454  used to identify the split points.
455
456  df --output now accepts a 'file' field, to propagate a specified
457  command line argument through to the output.
458
459  du accepts a new option: --inodes to show the number of inodes instead
460  of the blocks used.
461
462  id accepts a new option: --zero (-z) to delimit the output entries by
463  a NUL instead of a white space character.
464
465  id and ls with -Z report the SMACK security context where available.
466  mkdir, mkfifo and mknod with --context set the SMACK context where available.
467
468  id can now lookup by user ID, in addition to the existing name lookup.
469
470  join accepts a new option: --zero-terminated (-z). As with the sort,uniq
471  option of the same name, this makes join consume and produce NUL-terminated
472  lines rather than newline-terminated lines.
473
474  uniq accepts a new option: --group to print all items, while separating
475  unique groups with empty lines.
476
477  shred accepts new parameters to the --remove option to give greater
478  control over that operation, which can greatly reduce sync overhead.
479
480  shuf accepts a new option: --repeat (-r), which can repeat items in
481  the output.
482
483** Changes in behavior
484
485  cp --link now dereferences a symbolic link as source before creating the
486  hard link in the destination unless the -P,--no-deref option is specified.
487  Previously, it would create a hard link of the symbolic link, even when
488  the dereferencing options -L or -H were specified.
489
490  cp, install, mkdir, mknod and mkfifo no longer accept an argument to the
491  short -Z option.  The --context equivalent still takes an optional argument.
492
493  dd status=none now suppresses all non fatal diagnostic messages,
494  not just the transfer counts.
495
496  df no longer accepts the long-obsolescent --megabytes option.
497
498  stdbuf now requires at least one buffering mode option to be specified,
499  as per the documented interface.
500
501** Improvements
502
503  base64 encoding throughput for bulk data is increased by about 60%.
504
505  md5sum can use libcrypto hash routines where allowed to potentially
506  get better performance through using more system specific logic.
507  sha1sum for example has improved throughput by 40% on an i3-2310M.
508  This also affects sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum and sha512sum.
509
510  stat and tail work better with EFIVARFS, EXOFS, F2FS, HOSTFS, SMACKFS, SNFS
511  and UBIFS.  stat -f --format=%T now reports the file system type, and tail -f
512  now uses inotify for files on all those except SNFS, rather than the default
513  (for unknown file system types) of issuing a warning and reverting to polling.
514
515  shuf outputs subsets of large inputs much more efficiently.
516  Reservoir sampling is used to limit memory usage based on the number of
517  outputs, rather than the number of inputs.
518
519  shred increases the default write block size from 12KiB to 64KiB
520  to align with other utilities and reduce the system call overhead.
521
522  split --line-bytes=SIZE, now only allocates memory as needed rather
523  than allocating SIZE bytes at program start.
524
525  stty now supports configuring "stick" (mark/space) parity where available.
526
527** Build-related
528
529  factor now builds on aarch64 based systems [bug introduced in coreutils-8.20]
530
531
532* Noteworthy changes in release 8.21 (2013-02-14) [stable]
533
534** New programs
535
536  numfmt: reformat numbers
537
538** New features
539
540  df now accepts the --output[=FIELD_LIST] option to define the list of columns
541  to include in the output, or all available columns if the FIELD_LIST is
542  omitted.  Note this enables df to output both block and inode fields together.
543
544  du now accepts the --threshold=SIZE option to restrict the output to entries
545  with such a minimum SIZE (or a maximum SIZE if it is negative).
546  du recognizes -t SIZE as equivalent, for compatibility with FreeBSD.
547
548  timeout now accepts the --preserve-status option to always propagate the exit
549  status, useful for commands that can run for an indeterminite amount of time.
550
551** Bug fixes
552
553  cp --no-preserve=mode now no longer exits non-zero.
554  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.20]
555
556  cut with a range like "N-" no longer allocates N/8 bytes.  That buffer
557  would never be used, and allocation failure could cause cut to fail.
558  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.10]
559
560  cut no longer accepts the invalid range 0-, which made it print empty lines.
561  Instead, cut now fails and emits an appropriate diagnostic.
562  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
563
564  cut now handles overlapping to-EOL ranges properly.  Before, it would
565  interpret "-b2-,3-" like "-b3-".  Now it's treated like "-b2-".
566  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
567
568  cut no longer prints extraneous delimiters when a to-EOL range subsumes
569  another range.  Before, "echo 123|cut --output-delim=: -b2-,3" would print
570  "2:3".  Now it prints "23".  [bug introduced in 5.3.0]
571
572  cut -f no longer inspects input line N+1 before fully outputting line N,
573  which avoids delayed output for intermittent input.
574  [bug introduced in TEXTUTILS-1_8b]
575
576  factor no longer loops infinitely on 32 bit powerpc or sparc systems.
577  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.20]
578
579  install -m M SOURCE DEST no longer has a race condition where DEST's
580  permissions are temporarily derived from SOURCE instead of from M.
581
582  pr -n no longer crashes when passed values >= 32.  Also, line numbers are
583  consistently padded with spaces, rather than with zeros for certain widths.
584  [bug introduced in TEXTUTILS-1_22i]
585
586  seq -w ensures that for numbers input in scientific notation,
587  the output numbers are properly aligned and of the correct width.
588  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
589
590  seq -w ensures correct alignment when the step value includes a precision
591  while the start value does not, and the number sequence narrows.
592  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
593
594  seq -s no longer prints an erroneous newline after the first number, and
595  outputs a newline after the last number rather than a trailing separator.
596  Also seq no longer ignores a specified step value when the end value is 1.
597  [bugs introduced in coreutils-8.20]
598
599  timeout now ensures that blocking of ALRM signals is not inherited from
600  its parent, which would cause timeouts to be ignored.
601  [the bug dates back to the initial implementation]
602
603** Changes in behavior
604
605  df --total now prints '-' into the target column (mount point) of the
606  summary line, accommodating the --output option where the target field
607  can be in any column.  If there is no source column, then df prints
608  'total' in the target column.
609
610  df now properly outputs file system information with bind mounts present on
611  the system by skipping duplicate entries (identified by the device number).
612  Consequently, df also elides the early-boot pseudo file system type "rootfs".
613
614  cut -d$'\n' no longer outputs lines identified in the --fields list,
615  to align with other implementations and to avoid delayed output of lines.
616
617  nl no longer supports the --page-increment option, which has been
618  deprecated since coreutils-7.5.  Use --line-increment instead.
619
620** Improvements
621
622  readlink now supports multiple arguments, and a complementary
623  -z, --zero option to delimit output items with the NUL character.
624
625  stat and tail now know about CEPH.  stat -f --format=%T now reports the file
626  system type, and tail -f uses polling for files on CEPH file systems.
627
628  stty now supports configuring DTR/DSR hardware flow control where available.
629
630** Build-related
631
632  Perl is now more of a prerequisite.  It has long been required in order
633  to run (not skip) a significant percentage of the tests.  Now, it is
634  also required in order to generate proper man pages, via help2man.  The
635  generated man/*.1 man pages are no longer distributed.  Building without
636  perl, you would create stub man pages.  Thus, while perl is not an
637  official prerequisite (build and "make check" will still succeed), any
638  resulting man pages would be inferior.  In addition, this fixes a bug
639  in distributed (not from clone) Makefile.in that could cause parallel
640  build failure when building from modified sources, as is common practice
641  for a patched distribution package.
642
643  factor now builds on x86_64 with x32 ABI, 32 bit MIPS, and all HPPA systems,
644  by avoiding incompatible asm.  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.20]
645
646  A root-only test predicate would always fail.  Its job was to determine
647  whether our dummy user, $NON_ROOT_USERNAME, was able to run binaries from
648  the build directory.  As a result, all dependent tests were always skipped.
649  Now, those tests may be run once again.  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.20]
650
651
652* Noteworthy changes in release 8.20 (2012-10-23) [stable]
653
654** New features
655
656  dd now accepts 'status=none' to suppress all informational output.
657
658  md5sum now accepts the --tag option to print BSD-style output with GNU
659  file name escaping.  This also affects sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum,
660  sha384sum and sha512sum.
661
662** Bug fixes
663
664  cp could read from freed memory and could even make corrupt copies.
665  This could happen with a very fragmented and sparse input file,
666  on GNU/Linux file systems supporting fiemap extent scanning.
667  This bug also affects mv when it resorts to copying, and install.
668  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.11]
669
670  cp --no-preserve=mode now no longer preserves the original file's
671  permissions but correctly sets mode specified by 0666 & ~umask
672
673  du no longer emits a "disk-corrupted"-style diagnostic when it detects
674  a directory cycle that is due to a bind-mounted directory.  Instead,
675  it detects this precise type of cycle, diagnoses it as such and
676  eventually exits nonzero.
677
678  factor (when using gmp) would mistakenly declare some composite numbers
679  to be prime, e.g., 465658903, 2242724851, 6635692801 and many more.
680  The fix makes factor somewhat slower (~25%) for ranges of consecutive
681  numbers, and up to 8 times slower for some worst-case individual numbers.
682  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.0, with GNU MP support]
683
684  ls now correctly colors dangling symlinks when listing their containing
685  directories, with orphaned symlink coloring disabled in LS_COLORS.
686  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.14]
687
688  rm -i -d now prompts the user then removes an empty directory, rather
689  than ignoring the -d option and failing with an 'Is a directory' error.
690  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.19, with the addition of --dir (-d)]
691
692  rm -r S/ (where S is a symlink-to-directory) no longer gives the invalid
693  "Too many levels of symbolic links" diagnostic.
694  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.6]
695
696  seq now handles arbitrarily long non-negative whole numbers when the
697  increment is 1 and when no format-changing option is specified.
698  Before, this would infloop:
699    b=100000000000000000000; seq $b $b
700  [the bug dates back to the initial implementation]
701
702** Changes in behavior
703
704  nproc now diagnoses with an error, non option command line parameters.
705
706** Improvements
707
708  factor's core has been rewritten for speed and increased range.
709  It can now factor numbers up to 2^128, even without GMP support.
710  Its speed is from a few times better (for small numbers) to over
711  10,000 times better (just below 2^64).  The new code also runs a
712  deterministic primality test for each prime factor, not just a
713  probabilistic test.
714
715  seq is now up to 70 times faster than it was in coreutils-8.19 and prior,
716  but only with non-negative whole numbers, an increment of 1, and no
717  format-changing options.
718
719  stat and tail know about ZFS, VZFS and VMHGFS.  stat -f --format=%T now
720  reports the file system type, and tail -f now uses inotify for files on
721  ZFS and VZFS file systems, rather than the default (for unknown file
722  system types) of issuing a warning and reverting to polling.  tail -f
723  still uses polling for files on VMHGFS file systems.
724
725** Build-related
726
727  root-only tests now check for permissions of our dummy user,
728  $NON_ROOT_USERNAME, before trying to run binaries from the build directory.
729  Before, we would get hard-to-diagnose reports of failing root-only tests.
730  Now, those tests are skipped with a useful diagnostic when the root tests
731  are run without following the instructions in README.
732
733  We now build most directories using non-recursive make rules.  I.e.,
734  rather than running make in man/, lib/, src/, tests/, instead, the top
735  level Makefile.am includes a $dir/local.mk that describes how to build
736  the targets in the corresponding directory.  Two directories remain
737  unconverted: po/, gnulib-tests/.  One nice side-effect is that the more
738  accurate dependencies have eliminated a nagging occasional failure that
739  was seen when running parallel "make syntax-check".
740
741
742* Noteworthy changes in release 8.19 (2012-08-20) [stable]
743
744** Bug fixes
745
746  df now fails when the list of mounted file systems (/etc/mtab) cannot
747  be read, yet the file system type information is needed to process
748  certain options like -a, -l, -t and -x.
749  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
750
751  sort -u could fail to output one or more result lines.
752  For example, this command would fail to print "1":
753  (yes 7 | head -11; echo 1) | sort --p=1 -S32b -u
754  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.6]
755
756  sort -u could read freed memory.
757  For example, this evokes a read from freed memory:
758  perl -le 'print "a\n"."0"x900'|valgrind sort --p=1 -S32b -u>/dev/null
759  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.6]
760
761** New features
762
763  rm now accepts the --dir (-d) option which makes it remove empty directories.
764  Since removing empty directories is relatively safe, this option can be
765  used as a part of the alias rm='rm --dir'.  This improves compatibility
766  with Mac OS X and BSD systems which also honor the -d option.
767
768
769* Noteworthy changes in release 8.18 (2012-08-12) [stable]
770
771** Bug fixes
772
773  cksum now prints checksums atomically so that concurrent
774  processes will not intersperse their output.
775  [the bug dates back to the initial implementation]
776
777  date -d "$(printf '\xb0')" would print 00:00:00 with today's date
778  rather than diagnosing the invalid input.  Now it reports this:
779  date: invalid date '\260'
780  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
781
782  df no longer outputs control characters present in the mount point name.
783  Such characters are replaced with '?', so for example, scripts consuming
784  lines output by df, can work reliably.
785  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
786
787  df --total now exits with an appropriate diagnostic and error code, when
788  file system --type options do not lead to a processed file system.
789  [This bug dates back to when --total was added in coreutils-7.0]
790
791  head --lines=-N (-n-N) now resets the read pointer of a seekable input file.
792  This means that "head -n-3" no longer consumes all of its input, and lines
793  not output by head may be processed by other programs.  For example, this
794  command now prints the final line, 2, while before it would print nothing:
795    seq 2 > k; (head -n-1 > /dev/null; cat) < k
796  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
797
798  ls --color would mis-color relative-named symlinks in /
799  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.17]
800
801  split now ensures it doesn't overwrite the input file with generated output.
802  [the bug dates back to the initial implementation]
803
804  stat and df now report the correct file system usage,
805  in all situations on GNU/Linux, by correctly determining the block size.
806  [df bug since coreutils-5.0.91, stat bug since the initial implementation]
807
808  tail -f no longer tries to use inotify on AUFS or PanFS file systems
809  [you might say this was introduced in coreutils-7.5, along with inotify
810   support, but even now, its magic number isn't in the usual place.]
811
812** New features
813
814  stat -f recognizes the new remote file system types: aufs, panfs.
815
816** Changes in behavior
817
818  su: this program has been removed.  We stopped installing "su" by
819  default with the release of coreutils-6.9.90 on 2007-12-01.  Now,
820  that the util-linux package has the union of the Suse and Fedora
821  patches as well as enough support to build on the Hurd, we no longer
822  have any reason to include it here.
823
824** Improvements
825
826  sort avoids redundant processing in the presence of inaccessible inputs,
827  or unwritable output.  Sort now diagnoses certain errors at start-up,
828  rather than after potentially expensive processing.
829
830  sort now allocates no more than 75% of physical memory by default,
831  to better share system resources, and thus operate more efficiently.
832  [The default max memory usage changed from 50% to 100% in coreutils-8.16]
833
834
835* Noteworthy changes in release 8.17 (2012-05-10) [stable]
836
837** Bug fixes
838
839  id and groups, when invoked with no user name argument, would print
840  the default group ID listed in the password database, and sometimes
841  that ID would be neither real nor effective.  For example, when run
842  set-GID, or in a session for which the default group has just been
843  changed, the new group ID would be listed, even though it is not
844  yet effective. [bug introduced in coreutils-8.1]
845
846  cp S D is no longer subject to a race: if an existing D were removed
847  between the initial stat and subsequent open-without-O_CREATE, cp would
848  fail with a confusing diagnostic saying that the destination, D, was not
849  found.  Now, in this unusual case, it retries the open (but with O_CREATE),
850  and hence usually succeeds.  With NFS attribute caching, the condition
851  was particularly easy to trigger, since there, the removal of D could
852  precede the initial stat.  [This bug was present in "the beginning".]
853
854  split --number=C /dev/null no longer appears to infloop on GNU/Hurd
855  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.8]
856
857  stat no longer reports a negative file size as a huge positive number.
858  [bug present since 'stat' was introduced in fileutils-4.1.9]
859
860** New features
861
862  split and truncate now allow any seekable files in situations where
863  the file size is needed, instead of insisting on regular files.
864
865  fmt now accepts the --goal=WIDTH (-g) option.
866
867  stat -f recognizes new file system types: bdevfs, inodefs, qnx6
868
869** Changes in behavior
870
871  cp,mv,install,cat,split: now read and write a minimum of 64KiB at a time.
872  This was previously 32KiB and increasing to 64KiB was seen to increase
873  throughput by about 10% when reading cached files on 64 bit GNU/Linux.
874
875  cp --attributes-only no longer truncates any existing destination file,
876  allowing for more general copying of attributes from one file to another.
877
878
879* Noteworthy changes in release 8.16 (2012-03-26) [stable]
880
881** New features
882
883  As a GNU extension, 'chmod', 'mkdir', and 'install' now accept operators
884  '-', '+', '=' followed by octal modes; for example, 'chmod +40 FOO' enables
885  and 'chmod -40 FOO' disables FOO's group-read permissions.  Operator
886  numeric modes can be combined with symbolic modes by separating them with
887  commas; for example, =0,u+r clears all permissions except for enabling
888  user-read permissions.  Unlike ordinary numeric modes, operator numeric
889  modes do not preserve directory setuid and setgid bits; for example,
890  'chmod =0 FOO' clears all of FOO's permissions, including setuid and setgid.
891
892  Also, ordinary numeric modes with five or more digits no longer preserve
893  setuid and setgid bits, so that 'chmod 00755 FOO' now clears FOO's setuid
894  and setgid bits.  This allows scripts to be portable to other systems which
895  lack the GNU extension mentioned previously, and where ordinary numeric
896  modes do not preserve directory setuid and setgid bits.
897
898  dd now accepts the count_bytes, skip_bytes iflags and the seek_bytes
899  oflag, to more easily allow processing portions of a file.
900
901  dd now accepts the conv=sparse flag to attempt to create sparse
902  output, by seeking rather than writing to the output file.
903
904  ln now accepts the --relative option, to generate a relative
905  symbolic link to a target, irrespective of how the target is specified.
906
907  split now accepts an optional "from" argument to --numeric-suffixes,
908  which changes the start number from the default of 0.
909
910  split now accepts the --additional-suffix option, to append an
911  additional static suffix to output file names.
912
913  basename now supports the -a and -s options, which allow processing
914  of more than one argument at a time.  Also the complementary
915  -z option was added to delimit output items with the NUL character.
916
917  dirname now supports more than one argument.  Also the complementary
918  -z option was added to delimit output items with the NUL character.
919
920** Bug fixes
921
922  du --one-file-system (-x) would ignore any non-directory specified on
923  the command line.  For example, "touch f; du -x f" would print nothing.
924  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.15]
925
926  mv now lets you move a symlink onto a same-inode destination file that
927  has two or more hard links.  Before, it would reject that, saying that
928  they are the same, implicitly warning you that the move would result in
929  data loss.  In this unusual case, when not moving the symlink onto its
930  referent, there is no risk of data loss, since the symlink will
931  typically still point to one of the hard links.
932
933  "mv A B" could succeed, yet A would remain.  This would happen only when
934  both A and B were hard links to the same symlink, and with a kernel for
935  which rename("A","B") does nothing and returns 0 (POSIX mandates this
936  surprising rename no-op behavior).  Now, mv handles this case by skipping
937  the usually-useless rename and simply unlinking A.
938
939  realpath no longer mishandles a root directory.  This was most
940  noticeable on platforms where // is a different directory than /,
941  but could also be observed with --relative-base=/ or
942  --relative-to=/.  [bug since the beginning, in 8.15]
943
944** Improvements
945
946  ls can be much more efficient, especially with large directories on file
947  systems for which getfilecon-, ACL-check- and XATTR-check-induced syscalls
948  fail with ENOTSUP or similar.
949
950  'realpath --relative-base=dir' in isolation now implies '--relative-to=dir'
951  instead of causing a usage failure.
952
953  split now supports an unlimited number of split files as default behavior.
954
955
956* Noteworthy changes in release 8.15 (2012-01-06) [stable]
957
958** New programs
959
960  realpath: print resolved file names.
961
962** Bug fixes
963
964  du -x no longer counts root directories of other file systems.
965  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.1.0]
966
967  ls --color many-entry-directory was uninterruptible for too long
968  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.2.1]
969
970  ls's -k option no longer affects how ls -l outputs file sizes.
971  It now affects only the per-directory block counts written by -l,
972  and the sizes written by -s.  This is for compatibility with BSD
973  and with POSIX 2008.  Because -k is no longer equivalent to
974  --block-size=1KiB, a new long option --kibibyte stands for -k.
975  [bug introduced in coreutils-4.5.4]
976
977  ls -l would leak a little memory (security context string) for each
978  nonempty directory listed on the command line, when using SELinux.
979  [bug probably introduced in coreutils-6.10 with SELinux support]
980
981  rm -rf DIR would fail with "Device or resource busy" on Cygwin with NWFS
982  and NcFsd file systems.  This did not affect Unix/Linux-based kernels.
983  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.0, when rm began using fts]
984
985  split -n 1/2 FILE no longer fails when operating on a growing file, or
986  (on some systems) when operating on a non-regular file like /dev/zero.
987  It would report "/dev/zero: No such file or directory" even though
988  the file obviously exists.  Same for -n l/2.
989  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.8, with the addition of the -n option]
990
991  stat -f now recognizes the FhGFS and PipeFS file system types.
992
993  tac no longer fails to handle two or more non-seekable inputs
994  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.3.0]
995
996  tail -f no longer tries to use inotify on GPFS or FhGFS file systems
997  [you might say this was introduced in coreutils-7.5, along with inotify
998   support, but the new magic numbers weren't in the usual places then.]
999
1000** Changes in behavior
1001
1002  df avoids long UUID-including file system names in the default listing.
1003  With recent enough kernel/tools, these long names would be used, pushing
1004  second and subsequent columns far to the right.  Now, when a long name
1005  refers to a symlink, and no file systems are specified, df prints the
1006  usually-short referent instead.
1007
1008  tail -f now uses polling (not inotify) when any of its file arguments
1009  resides on a file system of unknown type.  In addition, for each such
1010  argument, tail -f prints a warning with the FS type magic number and a
1011  request to report it to the bug-reporting address.
1012
1013
1014* Noteworthy changes in release 8.14 (2011-10-12) [stable]
1015
1016** Bug fixes
1017
1018  ls --dereference no longer outputs erroneous "argetm" strings for
1019  dangling symlinks when an 'ln=target' entry is in $LS_COLORS.
1020  [bug introduced in fileutils-4.0]
1021
1022  ls -lL symlink once again properly prints "+" when the referent has an ACL.
1023  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.13]
1024
1025  sort -g no longer infloops for certain inputs containing NaNs
1026  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.5]
1027
1028** Improvements
1029
1030  md5sum --check now supports the -r format from the corresponding BSD tool.
1031  This also affects sha1sum, sha224sum, sha384sum and sha512sum.
1032
1033  pwd now works also on systems without openat.  On such systems, pwd
1034  would fail when run from a directory whose absolute name contained
1035  more than PATH_MAX / 3 components.  The df, stat and readlink programs
1036  are also affected due to their use of the canonicalize_* functions.
1037
1038** Changes in behavior
1039
1040  timeout now only processes the first signal received from the set
1041  it is handling (SIGTERM, SIGINT, ...).  This is to support systems that
1042  implicitly create threads for some timer functions (like GNU/kFreeBSD).
1043
1044** Build-related
1045
1046  "make dist" no longer builds .tar.gz files.
1047  xz is portable enough and in wide-enough use that distributing
1048  only .tar.xz files is enough.
1049
1050
1051* Noteworthy changes in release 8.13 (2011-09-08) [stable]
1052
1053** Bug fixes
1054
1055  chown and chgrp with the -v --from= options, now output the correct owner.
1056  I.e., for skipped files, the original ownership is output, not the new one.
1057  [bug introduced in sh-utils-2.0g]
1058
1059  cp -r could mistakenly change the permissions of an existing destination
1060  directory.  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.8]
1061
1062  cp -u -p would fail to preserve one hard link for each up-to-date copy
1063  of a src-hard-linked name in the destination tree.  I.e., if s/a and s/b
1064  are hard-linked and dst/s/a is up to date, "cp -up s dst" would copy s/b
1065  to dst/s/b rather than simply linking dst/s/b to dst/s/a.
1066  [This bug appears to have been present in "the beginning".]
1067
1068  fts-using tools (rm, du, chmod, chgrp, chown, chcon) no longer use memory
1069  proportional to the number of entries in each directory they process.
1070  Before, rm -rf 4-million-entry-directory would consume about 1GiB of memory.
1071  Now, it uses less than 30MB, no matter how many entries there are.
1072  [this bug was inherent in the use of fts: thus, for rm the bug was
1073  introduced in coreutils-8.0.  The prior implementation of rm did not use
1074  as much memory.  du, chmod, chgrp and chown started using fts in 6.0.
1075  chcon was added in coreutils-6.9.91 with fts support.  ]
1076
1077  pr -T no longer ignores a specified LAST_PAGE to stop at.
1078  [bug introduced in textutils-1.19q]
1079
1080  printf '%d' '"' no longer accesses out-of-bounds memory in the diagnostic.
1081  [bug introduced in sh-utils-1.16]
1082
1083  split --number l/... no longer creates extraneous files in certain cases.
1084  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.8]
1085
1086  timeout now sends signals to commands that create their own process group.
1087  timeout is no longer confused when starting off with a child process.
1088  [bugs introduced in coreutils-7.0]
1089
1090  unexpand -a now aligns correctly when there are spaces spanning a tabstop,
1091  followed by a tab.  In that case a space was dropped, causing misalignment.
1092  We also now ensure that a space never precedes a tab.
1093  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.3.0]
1094
1095** Changes in behavior
1096
1097  chmod, chown and chgrp now output the original attributes in messages,
1098  when -v or -c specified.
1099
1100  cp -au (where --preserve=links is implicit) may now replace newer
1101  files in the destination, to mirror hard links from the source.
1102
1103** New features
1104
1105  date now accepts ISO 8601 date-time strings with "T" as the
1106  separator.  It has long parsed dates like "2004-02-29 16:21:42"
1107  with a space between the date and time strings.  Now it also parses
1108  "2004-02-29T16:21:42" and fractional-second and time-zone-annotated
1109  variants like "2004-02-29T16:21:42.333-07:00"
1110
1111  md5sum accepts the new --strict option.  With --check, it makes the
1112  tool exit non-zero for any invalid input line, rather than just warning.
1113  This also affects sha1sum, sha224sum, sha384sum and sha512sum.
1114
1115  split accepts a new --filter=CMD option.  With it, split filters output
1116  through CMD.  CMD may use the $FILE environment variable, which is set to
1117  the nominal output file name for each invocation of CMD.  For example, to
1118  split a file into 3 approximately equal parts, which are then compressed:
1119    split -n3 --filter='xz > $FILE.xz' big
1120  Note the use of single quotes, not double quotes.
1121  That creates files named xaa.xz, xab.xz and xac.xz.
1122
1123  timeout accepts a new --foreground option, to support commands not started
1124  directly from a shell prompt, where the command is interactive or needs to
1125  receive signals initiated from the terminal.
1126
1127** Improvements
1128
1129  cp -p now copies trivial NSFv4 ACLs on Solaris 10.  Before, it would
1130  mistakenly apply a non-trivial ACL to the destination file.
1131
1132  cp and ls now support HP-UX 11.11's ACLs, thanks to improved support
1133  in gnulib.
1134
1135  df now supports disk partitions larger than 4 TiB on MacOS X 10.5
1136  or newer and on AIX 5.2 or newer.
1137
1138  join --check-order now prints "join: FILE:LINE_NUMBER: bad_line" for an
1139  unsorted input, rather than e.g., "join: file 1 is not in sorted order".
1140
1141  shuf outputs small subsets of large permutations much more efficiently.
1142  For example 'shuf -i1-$((2**32-1)) -n2' no longer exhausts memory.
1143
1144  stat -f now recognizes the GPFS, MQUEUE and PSTOREFS file system types.
1145
1146  timeout now supports sub-second timeouts.
1147
1148** Build-related
1149
1150  Changes inherited from gnulib address a build failure on HP-UX 11.11
1151  when using /opt/ansic/bin/cc.
1152
1153  Numerous portability and build improvements inherited via gnulib.
1154
1155
1156* Noteworthy changes in release 8.12 (2011-04-26) [stable]
1157
1158** Bug fixes
1159
1160  tail's --follow=name option no longer implies --retry on systems
1161  with inotify support.  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
1162
1163** Changes in behavior
1164
1165  cp's extent-based (FIEMAP) copying code is more reliable in the face
1166  of varying and undocumented file system semantics:
1167  - it no longer treats unwritten extents specially
1168  - a FIEMAP-based extent copy always uses the FIEMAP_FLAG_SYNC flag.
1169      Before, it would incur the performance penalty of that sync only
1170      for 2.6.38 and older kernels.  We thought all problems would be
1171      resolved for 2.6.39.
1172  - it now attempts a FIEMAP copy only on a file that appears sparse.
1173      Sparse files are relatively unusual, and the copying code incurs
1174      the performance penalty of the now-mandatory sync only for them.
1175
1176** Portability
1177
1178  dd once again compiles on AIX 5.1 and 5.2
1179
1180
1181* Noteworthy changes in release 8.11 (2011-04-13) [stable]
1182
1183** Bug fixes
1184
1185  cp -a --link would not create a hardlink to a symlink, instead
1186  copying the symlink and then not preserving its timestamp.
1187  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.0]
1188
1189  cp now avoids FIEMAP issues with BTRFS before Linux 2.6.38,
1190  which could result in corrupt copies of sparse files.
1191  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.10]
1192
1193  cut could segfault when invoked with a user-specified output
1194  delimiter and an unbounded range like "-f1234567890-".
1195  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.3.0]
1196
1197  du would infloop when given --files0-from=DIR
1198  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.1]
1199
1200  sort no longer spawns 7 worker threads to sort 16 lines
1201  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.6]
1202
1203  touch built on Solaris 9 would segfault when run on Solaris 10
1204  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.8]
1205
1206  wc would dereference a NULL pointer upon an early out-of-memory error
1207  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.1]
1208
1209** New features
1210
1211  dd now accepts the 'nocache' flag to the iflag and oflag options,
1212  which will discard any cache associated with the files, or
1213  processed portion thereof.
1214
1215  dd now warns that 'iflag=fullblock' should be used,
1216  in various cases where partial reads can cause issues.
1217
1218** Changes in behavior
1219
1220  cp now avoids syncing files when possible, when doing a FIEMAP copy.
1221  The sync is only needed on Linux kernels before 2.6.39.
1222  [The sync was introduced in coreutils-8.10]
1223
1224  cp now copies empty extents efficiently, when doing a FIEMAP copy.
1225  It no longer reads the zero bytes from the input, and also can efficiently
1226  create a hole in the output file when --sparse=always is specified.
1227
1228  df now aligns columns consistently, and no longer wraps entries
1229  with longer device identifiers, over two lines.
1230
1231  install now rejects its long-deprecated --preserve_context option.
1232  Use --preserve-context instead.
1233
1234  test now accepts "==" as a synonym for "="
1235
1236
1237* Noteworthy changes in release 8.10 (2011-02-04) [stable]
1238
1239** Bug fixes
1240
1241  du would abort with a failed assertion when two conditions are met:
1242  part of the hierarchy being traversed is moved to a higher level in the
1243  directory tree, and there is at least one more command line directory
1244  argument following the one containing the moved sub-tree.
1245  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.1.0]
1246
1247  join --header now skips the ordering check for the first line
1248  even if the other file is empty.  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.5]
1249
1250  join -v2 now ensures the default output format prints the match field
1251  at the start of the line when it is different to the match field for
1252  the first file. [bug present in "the beginning".]
1253
1254  rm -f no longer fails for EINVAL or EILSEQ on file systems that
1255  reject file names invalid for that file system.
1256
1257  uniq -f NUM no longer tries to process fields after end of line.
1258  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.0]
1259
1260** New features
1261
1262  cp now copies sparse files efficiently on file systems with FIEMAP
1263  support (ext4, btrfs, xfs, ocfs2).  Before, it had to read 2^20 bytes
1264  when copying a 1MiB sparse file.  Now, it copies bytes only for the
1265  non-sparse sections of a file.  Similarly, to induce a hole in the
1266  output file, it had to detect a long sequence of zero bytes.  Now,
1267  it knows precisely where each hole in an input file is, and can
1268  reproduce them efficiently in the output file.  mv also benefits
1269  when it resorts to copying, e.g., between file systems.
1270
1271  join now supports -o 'auto' which will automatically infer the
1272  output format from the first line in each file, to ensure
1273  the same number of fields are output for each line.
1274
1275** Changes in behavior
1276
1277  join no longer reports disorder when one of the files is empty.
1278  This allows one to use join as a field extractor like:
1279  join -a1 -o 1.3,1.1 - /dev/null
1280
1281
1282* Noteworthy changes in release 8.9 (2011-01-04) [stable]
1283
1284** Bug fixes
1285
1286  split no longer creates files with a suffix length that
1287  is dependent on the number of bytes or lines per file.
1288  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.8]
1289
1290
1291* Noteworthy changes in release 8.8 (2010-12-22) [stable]
1292
1293** Bug fixes
1294
1295  cp -u no longer does unnecessary copying merely because the source
1296  has finer-grained time stamps than the destination.
1297
1298  od now prints floating-point numbers without losing information, and
1299  it no longer omits spaces between floating-point columns in some cases.
1300
1301  sort -u with at least two threads could attempt to read through a
1302  corrupted pointer. [bug introduced in coreutils-8.6]
1303
1304  sort with at least two threads and with blocked output would busy-loop
1305  (spinlock) all threads, often using 100% of available CPU cycles to
1306  do no work.  I.e., "sort < big-file | less" could waste a lot of power.
1307  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.6]
1308
1309  sort with at least two threads no longer segfaults due to use of pointers
1310  into the stack of an expired thread. [bug introduced in coreutils-8.6]
1311
1312  sort --compress no longer mishandles subprocesses' exit statuses,
1313  no longer hangs indefinitely due to a bug in waiting for subprocesses,
1314  and no longer generates many more than NMERGE subprocesses.
1315
1316  sort -m -o f f ... f no longer dumps core when file descriptors are limited.
1317
1318** Changes in behavior
1319
1320  sort will not create more than 8 threads by default due to diminishing
1321  performance gains.  Also the --parallel option is no longer restricted
1322  to the number of available processors.
1323
1324** New features
1325
1326  split accepts the --number option to generate a specific number of files.
1327
1328
1329* Noteworthy changes in release 8.7 (2010-11-13) [stable]
1330
1331** Bug fixes
1332
1333  cp, install, mv, and touch no longer crash when setting file times
1334  on Solaris 10 Update 9 [Solaris PatchID 144488 and newer expose a
1335  latent bug introduced in coreutils 8.1, and possibly a second latent
1336  bug going at least as far back as coreutils 5.97]
1337
1338  csplit no longer corrupts heap when writing more than 999 files,
1339  nor does it leak memory for every chunk of input processed
1340  [the bugs were present in the initial implementation]
1341
1342  tail -F once again notices changes in a currently unavailable
1343  remote directory [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
1344
1345** Changes in behavior
1346
1347  cp --attributes-only now completely overrides --reflink.
1348  Previously a reflink was needlessly attempted.
1349
1350  stat's %X, %Y, and %Z directives once again print only the integer
1351  part of seconds since the epoch.  This reverts a change from
1352  coreutils-8.6, that was deemed unnecessarily disruptive.
1353  To obtain a nanosecond-precision time stamp for %X use %.X;
1354  if you want (say) just 3 fractional digits, use %.3X.
1355  Likewise for %Y and %Z.
1356
1357  stat's new %W format directive would print floating point seconds.
1358  However, with the above change to %X, %Y and %Z, we've made %W work
1359  the same way as the others.
1360
1361  stat gained support for several printf-style flags, such as %'s for
1362  listing sizes with the current locale's thousands separator.
1363
1364
1365* Noteworthy changes in release 8.6 (2010-10-15) [stable]
1366
1367** Bug fixes
1368
1369  du no longer multiply counts a file that is a directory or whose
1370  link count is 1, even if the file is reached multiple times by
1371  following symlinks or via multiple arguments.
1372
1373  du -H and -L now consistently count pointed-to files instead of
1374  symbolic links, and correctly diagnose dangling symlinks.
1375
1376  du --ignore=D now ignores directory D even when that directory is
1377  found to be part of a directory cycle.  Before, du would issue a
1378  "NOTIFY YOUR SYSTEM MANAGER" diagnostic and fail.
1379
1380  split now diagnoses read errors rather than silently exiting.
1381  [bug introduced in coreutils-4.5.8]
1382
1383  tac would perform a double-free when given an input line longer than 16KiB.
1384  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.3]
1385
1386  tail -F once again notices changes in a currently unavailable directory,
1387  and works around a Linux kernel bug where inotify runs out of resources.
1388  [bugs introduced in coreutils-7.5]
1389
1390  tr now consistently handles case conversion character classes.
1391  In some locales, valid conversion specifications caused tr to abort,
1392  while in all locales, some invalid specifications were undiagnosed.
1393  [bugs introduced in coreutils 6.9.90 and 6.9.92]
1394
1395** New features
1396
1397  cp now accepts the --attributes-only option to not copy file data,
1398  which is useful for efficiently modifying files.
1399
1400  du recognizes -d N as equivalent to --max-depth=N, for compatibility
1401  with FreeBSD.
1402
1403  sort now accepts the --debug option, to highlight the part of the
1404  line significant in the sort, and warn about questionable options.
1405
1406  sort now supports -d, -f, -i, -R, and -V in any combination.
1407
1408  stat now accepts the %m format directive to output the mount point
1409  for a file.  It also accepts the %w and %W format directives for
1410  outputting the birth time of a file, if one is available.
1411
1412** Changes in behavior
1413
1414  df now consistently prints the device name for a bind mounted file,
1415  rather than its aliased target.
1416
1417  du now uses less than half as much memory when operating on trees
1418  with many hard-linked files.  With --count-links (-l), or when
1419  operating on trees with no hard-linked files, there is no change.
1420
1421  ls -l now uses the traditional three field time style rather than
1422  the wider two field numeric ISO style, in locales where a style has
1423  not been specified.  The new approach has nicer behavior in some
1424  locales, including English, which was judged to outweigh the disadvantage
1425  of generating less-predictable and often worse output in poorly-configured
1426  locales where there is an onus to specify appropriate non-default styles.
1427  [The old behavior was introduced in coreutils-6.0 and had been removed
1428   for English only using a different method since coreutils-8.1]
1429
1430  rm's -d now evokes an error;  before, it was silently ignored.
1431
1432  sort -g now uses long doubles for greater range and precision.
1433
1434  sort -h no longer rejects numbers with leading or trailing ".", and
1435  no longer accepts numbers with multiple ".".  It now considers all
1436  zeros to be equal.
1437
1438  sort now uses the number of available processors to parallelize
1439  the sorting operation.  The number of sorts run concurrently can be
1440  limited with the --parallel option or with external process
1441  control like taskset for example.
1442
1443  stat now provides translated output when no format is specified.
1444
1445  stat no longer accepts the --context (-Z) option.  Initially it was
1446  merely accepted and ignored, for compatibility.  Starting two years
1447  ago, with coreutils-7.0, its use evoked a warning.  Printing the
1448  SELinux context of a file can be done with the %C format directive,
1449  and the default output when no format is specified now automatically
1450  includes %C when context information is available.
1451
1452  stat no longer accepts the %C directive when the --file-system
1453  option is in effect, since security context is a file attribute
1454  rather than a file system attribute.
1455
1456  stat now outputs the full sub-second resolution for the atime,
1457  mtime, and ctime values since the Epoch, when using the %X, %Y, and
1458  %Z directives of the --format option.  This matches the fact that
1459  %x, %y, and %z were already doing so for the human-readable variant.
1460
1461  touch's --file option is no longer recognized.  Use --reference=F (-r)
1462  instead.  --file has not been documented for 15 years, and its use has
1463  elicited a warning since coreutils-7.1.
1464
1465  truncate now supports setting file sizes relative to a reference file.
1466  Also errors are no longer suppressed for unsupported file types, and
1467  relative sizes are restricted to supported file types.
1468
1469
1470* Noteworthy changes in release 8.5 (2010-04-23) [stable]
1471
1472** Bug fixes
1473
1474  cp and mv once again support preserving extended attributes.
1475  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.4]
1476
1477  cp now preserves "capabilities" when also preserving file ownership.
1478
1479  ls --color once again honors the 'NORMAL' dircolors directive.
1480  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.11]
1481
1482  sort -M now handles abbreviated months that are aligned using blanks
1483  in the locale database.  Also locales with 8 bit characters are
1484  handled correctly, including multi byte locales with the caveat
1485  that multi byte characters are matched case sensitively.
1486
1487  sort again handles obsolescent key formats (+POS -POS) correctly.
1488  Previously if -POS was specified, 1 field too many was used in the sort.
1489  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.2]
1490
1491** New features
1492
1493  join now accepts the --header option, to treat the first line of each
1494  file as a header line to be joined and printed unconditionally.
1495
1496  timeout now accepts the --kill-after option which sends a kill
1497  signal to the monitored command if it's still running the specified
1498  duration after the initial signal was sent.
1499
1500  who: the "+/-" --mesg (-T) indicator of whether a user/tty is accepting
1501  messages could be incorrectly listed as "+", when in fact, the user was
1502  not accepting messages (mesg no).  Before, who would examine only the
1503  permission bits, and not consider the group of the TTY device file.
1504  Thus, if a login tty's group would change somehow e.g., to "root",
1505  that would make it unwritable (via write(1)) by normal users, in spite
1506  of whatever the permission bits might imply.  Now, when configured
1507  using the --with-tty-group[=NAME] option, who also compares the group
1508  of the TTY device with NAME (or "tty" if no group name is specified).
1509
1510** Changes in behavior
1511
1512  ls --color no longer emits the final 3-byte color-resetting escape
1513  sequence when it would be a no-op.
1514
1515  join -t '' no longer emits an error and instead operates on
1516  each line as a whole (even if they contain NUL characters).
1517
1518
1519* Noteworthy changes in release 8.4 (2010-01-13) [stable]
1520
1521** Bug fixes
1522
1523  nproc --all is now guaranteed to be as large as the count
1524  of available processors, which may not have been the case
1525  on GNU/Linux systems with neither /proc nor /sys available.
1526  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.1]
1527
1528** Build-related
1529
1530  Work around a build failure when using buggy <sys/capability.h>.
1531  Alternatively, configure with --disable-libcap.
1532
1533  Compilation would fail on systems using glibc-2.7..2.9 due to changes in
1534  gnulib's wchar.h that tickled a bug in at least those versions of glibc's
1535  own <wchar.h> header.  Now, gnulib works around the bug in those older
1536  glibc <wchar.h> headers.
1537
1538  Building would fail with a link error (cp/copy.o) when XATTR headers
1539  were installed without the corresponding library.  Now, configure
1540  detects that and disables xattr support, as one would expect.
1541
1542
1543* Noteworthy changes in release 8.3 (2010-01-07) [stable]
1544
1545** Bug fixes
1546
1547  cp -p, install -p, mv, and touch -c could trigger a spurious error
1548  message when using new glibc coupled with an old kernel.
1549  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.12].
1550
1551  ls -l --color no longer prints "argetm" in front of dangling
1552  symlinks when the 'LINK target' directive was given to dircolors.
1553  [bug introduced in fileutils-4.0]
1554
1555  pr's page header was improperly formatted for long file names.
1556  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.2]
1557
1558  rm -r --one-file-system works once again.
1559  The rewrite to make rm use fts introduced a regression whereby
1560  a commmand of the above form would fail for all subdirectories.
1561  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.0]
1562
1563  stat -f recognizes more file system types: k-afs, fuseblk, gfs/gfs2, ocfs2,
1564  and rpc_pipefs. Also Minix V3 is displayed correctly as minix3, not minux3.
1565  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.1]
1566
1567  tail -f (inotify-enabled) once again works with remote files.
1568  The use of inotify with remote files meant that any changes to those
1569  files that was not done from the local system would go unnoticed.
1570  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
1571
1572  tail -F (inotify-enabled) would abort when a tailed file is repeatedly
1573  renamed-aside and then recreated.
1574  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
1575
1576  tail -F (inotify-enabled) could fail to follow renamed files.
1577  E.g., given a "tail -F a b" process, running "mv a b" would
1578  make tail stop tracking additions to "b".
1579  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
1580
1581  touch -a and touch -m could trigger bugs in some file systems, such
1582  as xfs or ntfs-3g, and fail to update timestamps.
1583  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.1]
1584
1585  wc now prints counts atomically so that concurrent
1586  processes will not intersperse their output.
1587  [the issue dates back to the initial implementation]
1588
1589
1590* Noteworthy changes in release 8.2 (2009-12-11) [stable]
1591
1592** Bug fixes
1593
1594  id's use of mgetgroups no longer writes beyond the end of a malloc'd buffer
1595  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.1]
1596
1597  id no longer crashes on systems without supplementary group support.
1598  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.1]
1599
1600  rm once again handles zero-length arguments properly.
1601  The rewrite to make rm use fts introduced a regression whereby
1602  a command like "rm a '' b" would fail to remove "a" and "b", due to
1603  the presence of the empty string argument.
1604  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.0]
1605
1606  sort is now immune to the signal handling of its parent.
1607  Specifically sort now doesn't exit with an error message
1608  if it uses helper processes for compression and its parent
1609  ignores CHLD signals. [bug introduced in coreutils-6.9]
1610
1611  tail without -f no longer accesses uninitialized memory
1612  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.6]
1613
1614  timeout is now immune to the signal handling of its parent.
1615  Specifically timeout now doesn't exit with an error message
1616  if its parent ignores CHLD signals. [bug introduced in coreutils-7.6]
1617
1618  a user running "make distcheck" in the coreutils source directory,
1619  with TMPDIR unset or set to the name of a world-writable directory,
1620  and with a malicious user on the same system
1621  was vulnerable to arbitrary code execution
1622  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.0]
1623
1624
1625* Noteworthy changes in release 8.1 (2009-11-18) [stable]
1626
1627** Bug fixes
1628
1629  chcon no longer exits immediately just because SELinux is disabled.
1630  Even then, chcon may still be useful.
1631  [bug introduced in coreutils-8.0]
1632
1633  chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown and du now diagnose an ostensible directory cycle
1634  and arrange to exit nonzero.  Before, they would silently ignore the
1635  offending directory and all "contents."
1636
1637  env -u A=B now fails, rather than silently adding A to the
1638  environment.  Likewise, printenv A=B silently ignores the invalid
1639  name.  [the bugs date back to the initial implementation]
1640
1641  ls --color now handles files with capabilities correctly.  Previously
1642  files with capabilities were often not colored, and also sometimes, files
1643  without capabilites were colored in error. [bug introduced in coreutils-7.0]
1644
1645  md5sum now prints checksums atomically so that concurrent
1646  processes will not intersperse their output.
1647  This also affected sum, sha1sum, sha224sum, sha384sum and sha512sum.
1648  [the bug dates back to the initial implementation]
1649
1650  mktemp no longer leaves a temporary file behind if it was unable to
1651  output the name of the file to stdout.
1652  [the bug dates back to the initial implementation]
1653
1654  nice -n -1 PROGRAM now runs PROGRAM even when its internal setpriority
1655  call fails with errno == EACCES.
1656  [the bug dates back to the initial implementation]
1657
1658  nice, nohup, and su now refuse to execute the subsidiary program if
1659  they detect write failure in printing an otherwise non-fatal warning
1660  message to stderr.
1661
1662  stat -f recognizes more file system types: afs, cifs, anon-inode FS,
1663  btrfs, cgroupfs, cramfs-wend, debugfs, futexfs, hfs, inotifyfs, minux3,
1664  nilfs, securityfs, selinux, xenfs
1665
1666  tail -f (inotify-enabled) now avoids a race condition.
1667  Before, any data appended in the tiny interval between the initial
1668  read-to-EOF and the inotify watch initialization would be ignored
1669  initially (until more data was appended), or forever, if the file
1670  were first renamed or unlinked or never modified.
1671  [The race was introduced in coreutils-7.5]
1672
1673  tail -F (inotify-enabled) now consistently tails a file that has been
1674  replaced via renaming.  That operation provokes either of two sequences
1675  of inotify events.  The less common sequence is now handled as well.
1676  [The bug came with the implementation change in coreutils-7.5]
1677
1678  timeout now doesn't exit unless the command it is monitoring does,
1679  for any specified signal. [bug introduced in coreutils-7.0].
1680
1681** Changes in behavior
1682
1683  chroot, env, nice, and su fail with status 125, rather than 1, on
1684  internal error such as failure to parse command line arguments; this
1685  is for consistency with stdbuf and timeout, and avoids ambiguity
1686  with the invoked command failing with status 1.  Likewise, nohup
1687  fails with status 125 instead of 127.
1688
1689  du (due to a change in gnulib's fts) can now traverse NFSv4 automounted
1690  directories in which the stat'd device number of the mount point differs
1691  during a traversal.  Before, it would fail, because such a mismatch would
1692  usually represent a serious error or a subversion attempt.
1693
1694  echo and printf now interpret \e as the Escape character (0x1B).
1695
1696  rm -f /read-only-fs/nonexistent now succeeds and prints no diagnostic
1697  on systems with an unlinkat syscall that sets errno to EROFS in that case.
1698  Before, it would fail with a "Read-only file system" diagnostic.
1699  Also, "rm /read-only-fs/nonexistent" now reports "file not found" rather
1700  than the less precise "Read-only file system" error.
1701
1702** New programs
1703
1704  nproc: Print the number of processing units available to a process.
1705
1706** New features
1707
1708  env and printenv now accept the option --null (-0), as a means to
1709  avoid ambiguity with newlines embedded in the environment.
1710
1711  md5sum --check now also accepts openssl-style checksums.
1712  So do sha1sum, sha224sum, sha384sum and sha512sum.
1713
1714  mktemp now accepts the option --suffix to provide a known suffix
1715  after the substitution in the template.  Additionally, uses such as
1716  "mktemp fileXXXXXX.txt" are able to infer an appropriate --suffix.
1717
1718  touch now accepts the option --no-dereference (-h), as a means to
1719  change symlink timestamps on platforms with enough support.
1720
1721
1722* Noteworthy changes in release 8.0 (2009-10-06) [beta]
1723
1724** Bug fixes
1725
1726  cp --preserve=xattr and --archive now preserve extended attributes even
1727  when the source file doesn't have write access.
1728  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.1]
1729
1730  touch -t [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[.ss] now accepts a timestamp string ending in .60,
1731  to accommodate leap seconds.
1732  [the bug dates back to the initial implementation]
1733
1734  ls --color now reverts to the color of a base file type consistently
1735  when the color of a more specific type is disabled.
1736  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.90]
1737
1738  ls -LR exits with status 2, not 0, when it encounters a cycle
1739
1740  "ls -is" is now consistent with ls -lis in ignoring values returned
1741  from a failed stat/lstat.  For example ls -Lis now prints "?", not "0",
1742  for the inode number and allocated size of a dereferenced dangling symlink.
1743
1744  tail --follow --pid now avoids a race condition where data written
1745  just before the process dies might not have been output by tail.
1746  Also, tail no longer delays at all when the specified pid is not live.
1747  [The race was introduced in coreutils-7.5,
1748   and the unnecessary delay was present since textutils-1.22o]
1749
1750** Portability
1751
1752  On Solaris 9, many commands would mistakenly treat file/ the same as
1753  file.  Now, even on such a system, path resolution obeys the POSIX
1754  rules that a trailing slash ensures that the preceding name is a
1755  directory or a symlink to a directory.
1756
1757** Changes in behavior
1758
1759  id no longer prints SELinux " context=..." when the POSIXLY_CORRECT
1760  environment variable is set.
1761
1762  readlink -f now ignores a trailing slash when deciding if the
1763  last component (possibly via a dangling symlink) can be created,
1764  since mkdir will succeed in that case.
1765
1766** New features
1767
1768  ln now accepts the options --logical (-L) and --physical (-P),
1769  added by POSIX 2008.  The default behavior is -P on systems like
1770  GNU/Linux where link(2) creates hard links to symlinks, and -L on
1771  BSD systems where link(2) follows symlinks.
1772
1773  stat: without -f, a command-line argument of "-" now means standard input.
1774  With --file-system (-f), an argument of "-" is now rejected.
1775  If you really must operate on a file named "-", specify it as
1776  "./-" or use "--" to separate options from arguments.
1777
1778** Improvements
1779
1780  rm: rewrite to use gnulib's fts
1781  This makes rm -rf significantly faster (400-500%) in some pathological
1782  cases, and slightly slower (20%) in at least one pathological case.
1783
1784  rm -r deletes deep hierarchies more efficiently.  Before, execution time
1785  was quadratic in the depth of the hierarchy, now it is merely linear.
1786  However, this improvement is not as pronounced as might be expected for
1787  very deep trees, because prior to this change, for any relative name
1788  length longer than 8KiB, rm -r would sacrifice official conformance to
1789  avoid the disproportionate quadratic performance penalty.  Leading to
1790  another improvement:
1791
1792  rm -r is now slightly more standards-conformant when operating on
1793  write-protected files with relative names longer than 8KiB.
1794
1795
1796* Noteworthy changes in release 7.6 (2009-09-11) [stable]
1797
1798** Bug fixes
1799
1800  cp, mv now ignore failure to preserve a symlink time stamp, when it is
1801  due to their running on a kernel older than what was implied by headers
1802  and libraries tested at configure time.
1803  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
1804
1805  cp --reflink --preserve now preserves attributes when cloning a file.
1806  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
1807
1808  cp --preserve=xattr no longer leaks resources on each preservation failure.
1809  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.1]
1810
1811  dd now exits with non-zero status when it encounters a write error while
1812  printing a summary to stderr.
1813  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.11]
1814
1815  dd cbs=N conv=unblock would fail to print a final newline when the size
1816  of the input was not a multiple of N bytes.
1817  [the non-conforming behavior dates back to the initial implementation]
1818
1819  df no longer requires that each command-line argument be readable
1820  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.3]
1821
1822  ls -i now prints consistent inode numbers also for mount points.
1823  This makes ls -i DIR less efficient on systems with dysfunctional readdir,
1824  because ls must stat every file in order to obtain a guaranteed-valid
1825  inode number.  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.0]
1826
1827  tail -f (inotify-enabled) now flushes any initial output before blocking.
1828  Before, this would print nothing and wait: stdbuf -o 4K tail -f /etc/passwd
1829  Note that this bug affects tail -f only when its standard output is buffered,
1830  which is relatively unusual.
1831  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
1832
1833  tail -f once again works with standard input.  inotify-enabled tail -f
1834  would fail when operating on a nameless stdin.  I.e., tail -f < /etc/passwd
1835  would say "tail: cannot watch `-': No such file or directory", yet the
1836  relatively baroque tail -f /dev/stdin < /etc/passwd would work.  Now, the
1837  offending usage causes tail to revert to its conventional sleep-based
1838  (i.e., not inotify-based) implementation.
1839  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.5]
1840
1841** Portability
1842
1843  ln, link: link f z/ would mistakenly succeed on Solaris 10, given an
1844  existing file, f, and nothing named "z".  ln -T f z/ has the same problem.
1845  Each would mistakenly create "z" as a link to "f".  Now, even on such a
1846  system, each command reports the error, e.g.,
1847  link: cannot create link `z/' to `f': Not a directory
1848
1849** New features
1850
1851  cp --reflink accepts a new "auto" parameter which falls back to
1852  a standard copy if creating a copy-on-write clone is not possible.
1853
1854** Changes in behavior
1855
1856  tail -f now ignores "-" when stdin is a pipe or FIFO.
1857  tail-with-no-args now ignores -f unconditionally when stdin is a pipe or FIFO.
1858  Before, it would ignore -f only when no file argument was specified,
1859  and then only when POSIXLY_CORRECT was set.  Now, :|tail -f - terminates
1860  immediately.  Before, it would block indefinitely.
1861
1862
1863* Noteworthy changes in release 7.5 (2009-08-20) [stable]
1864
1865** Bug fixes
1866
1867  dd's oflag=direct option now works even when the size of the input
1868  is not a multiple of e.g., 512 bytes.
1869
1870  dd now handles signals consistently even when they're received
1871  before data copying has started.
1872
1873  install runs faster again with SELinux enabled
1874  [introduced in coreutils-7.0]
1875
1876  ls -1U (with two or more arguments, at least one a nonempty directory)
1877  would print entry names *before* the name of the containing directory.
1878  Also fixed incorrect output of ls -1RU and ls -1sU.
1879  [introduced in coreutils-7.0]
1880
1881  sort now correctly ignores fields whose ending position is specified
1882  before the start position. Previously in numeric mode the remaining
1883  part of the line after the start position was used as the sort key.
1884  [This bug appears to have been present in "the beginning".]
1885
1886  truncate -s failed to skip all whitespace in the option argument in
1887  some locales.
1888
1889** New programs
1890
1891  stdbuf: A new program to run a command with modified stdio buffering
1892  for its standard streams.
1893
1894** Changes in behavior
1895
1896  ls --color: files with multiple hard links are no longer colored differently
1897  by default. That can be enabled by changing the LS_COLORS environment
1898  variable. You can control that using the MULTIHARDLINK dircolors input
1899  variable which corresponds to the 'mh' LS_COLORS item. Note these variables
1900  were renamed from 'HARDLINK' and 'hl' which were available since
1901  coreutils-7.1 when this feature was introduced.
1902
1903** Deprecated options
1904
1905  nl --page-increment: deprecated in favor of --line-increment, the new option
1906  maintains the previous semantics and the same short option, -i.
1907
1908** New features
1909
1910  chroot now accepts the options --userspec and --groups.
1911
1912  cp accepts a new option, --reflink: create a lightweight copy
1913  using copy-on-write (COW).  This is currently only supported within
1914  a btrfs file system.
1915
1916  cp now preserves time stamps on symbolic links, when possible
1917
1918  sort accepts a new option, --human-numeric-sort (-h): sort numbers
1919  while honoring human readable suffixes like KiB and MB etc.
1920
1921  tail --follow now uses inotify when possible, to be more responsive
1922  to file changes and more efficient when monitoring many files.
1923
1924
1925* Noteworthy changes in release 7.4 (2009-05-07) [stable]
1926
1927** Bug fixes
1928
1929  date -d 'next mon', when run on a Monday, now prints the date
1930  7 days in the future rather than the current day.  Same for any other
1931  day-of-the-week name, when run on that same day of the week.
1932  [This bug appears to have been present in "the beginning". ]
1933
1934  date -d tuesday, when run on a Tuesday -- using date built from the 7.3
1935  release tarball, not from git -- would print the date 7 days in the future.
1936  Now, it works properly and prints the current date.  That was due to
1937  human error (including not-committed changes in a release tarball)
1938  and the fact that there is no check to detect when the gnulib/ git
1939  submodule is dirty.
1940
1941** Build-related
1942
1943  make check: two tests have been corrected
1944
1945** Portability
1946
1947  There have been some ACL-related portability fixes for *BSD,
1948  inherited from gnulib.
1949
1950
1951* Noteworthy changes in release 7.3 (2009-05-01) [stable]
1952
1953** Bug fixes
1954
1955  cp now diagnoses failure to preserve selinux/xattr attributes when
1956  --preserve=context,xattr is specified in combination with -a.
1957  Also, cp no longer suppresses attribute-preservation diagnostics
1958  when preserving SELinux context was explicitly requested.
1959
1960  ls now aligns output correctly in the presence of abbreviated month
1961  names from the locale database that have differing widths.
1962
1963  ls -v and sort -V now order names like "#.b#" properly
1964
1965  mv: do not print diagnostics when failing to preserve xattr's on file
1966  systems without xattr support.
1967
1968  sort -m no longer segfaults when its output file is also an input file.
1969  E.g., with this, touch 1; sort -m -o 1 1, sort would segfault.
1970  [introduced in coreutils-7.2]
1971
1972** Changes in behavior
1973
1974  shred, sort, shuf: now use an internal pseudorandom generator by default.
1975  This is mainly noticeable in shred where the 3 random passes it does by
1976  default should proceed at the speed of the disk.  Previously /dev/urandom
1977  was used if available, which is relatively slow on GNU/Linux systems.
1978
1979** Improved robustness
1980
1981  cp would exit successfully after copying less than the full contents
1982  of a file larger than ~4000 bytes from a linux-/proc file system to a
1983  destination file system with a fundamental block size of 4KiB or greater.
1984  Reading into a 4KiB-or-larger buffer, cp's "read" syscall would return
1985  a value smaller than 4096, and cp would interpret that as EOF (POSIX
1986  allows this).  This optimization, now removed, saved 50% of cp's read
1987  syscalls when copying small files.  Affected linux kernels: at least
1988  2.6.9 through 2.6.29.
1989  [the optimization was introduced in coreutils-6.0]
1990
1991** Portability
1992
1993  df now pre-mounts automountable directories even with automounters for
1994  which stat-like syscalls no longer provoke mounting.  Now, df uses open.
1995
1996  'id -G $USER' now works correctly even on Darwin and NetBSD. Previously it
1997  would either truncate the group list to 10, or go into an infinite loop,
1998  due to their non-standard getgrouplist implementations.
1999  [truncation introduced in coreutils-6.11]
2000  [infinite loop introduced in coreutils-7.1]
2001
2002
2003* Noteworthy changes in release 7.2 (2009-03-31) [stable]
2004
2005** New features
2006
2007  pwd now accepts the options --logical (-L) and --physical (-P).  For
2008  compatibility with existing scripts, -P is the default behavior
2009  unless POSIXLY_CORRECT is requested.
2010
2011** Bug fixes
2012
2013  cat once again immediately outputs data it has processed.
2014  Previously it would have been buffered and only output if enough
2015  data was read, or on process exit.
2016  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.0]
2017
2018  comm's new --check-order option would fail to detect disorder on any pair
2019  of lines where one was a prefix of the other.  For example, this would
2020  fail to report the disorder: printf 'Xb\nX\n'>k; comm --check-order k k
2021  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.0]
2022
2023  cp once again diagnoses the invalid "cp -rl dir dir" right away,
2024  rather than after creating a very deep dir/dir/dir/... hierarchy.
2025  The bug strikes only with both --recursive (-r, -R) and --link (-l).
2026  [bug introduced in coreutils-7.1]
2027
2028  ls --sort=version (-v) sorted names beginning with "." inconsistently.
2029  Now, names that start with "." are always listed before those that don't.
2030
2031  pr: fix the bug whereby --indent=N (-o) did not indent header lines
2032  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.9.90]
2033
2034  sort now handles specified key ends correctly.
2035  Previously -k1,1b would have caused leading space from field 2 to be
2036  included in the sort while -k2,3.0 would have not included field 3.
2037
2038** Changes in behavior
2039
2040  cat,cp,install,mv,split: these programs now read and write a minimum
2041  of 32KiB at a time.  This was seen to double throughput when reading
2042  cached files on GNU/Linux-based systems.
2043
2044  cp -a now tries to preserve extended attributes (xattr), but does not
2045  diagnose xattr-preservation failure.  However, cp --preserve=all still does.
2046
2047  ls --color: hard link highlighting can be now disabled by changing the
2048  LS_COLORS environment variable. To disable it you can add something like
2049  this to your profile: eval `dircolors | sed s/hl=[^:]*:/hl=:/`
2050
2051
2052* Noteworthy changes in release 7.1 (2009-02-21) [stable]
2053
2054** New features
2055
2056  Add extended attribute support available on certain filesystems like ext2
2057  and XFS.
2058    cp: Tries to copy xattrs when --preserve=xattr or --preserve=all specified
2059    mv: Always tries to copy xattrs
2060    install: Never copies xattrs
2061
2062  cp and mv accept a new option, --no-clobber (-n): silently refrain
2063  from overwriting any existing destination file
2064
2065  dd accepts iflag=cio and oflag=cio to open the file in CIO (concurrent I/O)
2066  mode where this feature is available.
2067
2068  install accepts a new option, --compare (-C): compare each pair of source
2069  and destination files, and if the destination has identical content and
2070  any specified owner, group, permissions, and possibly SELinux context, then
2071  do not modify the destination at all.
2072
2073  ls --color now highlights hard linked files, too
2074
2075  stat -f recognizes the Lustre file system type
2076
2077** Bug fixes
2078
2079  chgrp, chmod, chown --silent (--quiet, -f) no longer print some diagnostics
2080  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.1]
2081
2082  cp uses much less memory in some situations
2083
2084  cp -a now correctly tries to preserve SELinux context (announced in 6.9.90),
2085  doesn't inform about failure, unlike with --preserve=all
2086
2087  du --files0-from=FILE no longer reads all of FILE into RAM before
2088  processing the first file name
2089
2090  seq 9223372036854775807 9223372036854775808 now prints only two numbers
2091  on systems with extended long double support and good library support.
2092  Even with this patch, on some systems, it still produces invalid output,
2093  from 3 to at least 1026 lines long. [bug introduced in coreutils-6.11]
2094
2095  seq -w now accounts for a decimal point added to the last number
2096  to correctly print all numbers to the same width.
2097
2098  wc --files0-from=FILE no longer reads all of FILE into RAM, before
2099  processing the first file name, unless the list of names is known
2100  to be small enough.
2101
2102** Changes in behavior
2103
2104  cp and mv: the --reply={yes,no,query} option has been removed.
2105  Using it has elicited a warning for the last three years.
2106
2107  dd: user specified offsets that are too big are handled better.
2108  Previously, erroneous parameters to skip and seek could result
2109  in redundant reading of the file with no warnings or errors.
2110
2111  du: -H (initially equivalent to --si) is now equivalent to
2112  --dereference-args, and thus works as POSIX requires
2113
2114  shred: now does 3 overwrite passes by default rather than 25.
2115
2116  ls -l now marks SELinux-only files with the less obtrusive '.',
2117  rather than '+'.  A file with any other combination of MAC and ACL
2118  is still marked with a '+'.
2119
2120
2121* Noteworthy changes in release 7.0 (2008-10-05) [beta]
2122
2123** New programs
2124
2125  timeout: Run a command with bounded time.
2126  truncate: Set the size of a file to a specified size.
2127
2128** New features
2129
2130  chgrp, chmod, chown, chcon, du, rm: now all display linear performance,
2131  even when operating on million-entry directories on ext3 and ext4 file
2132  systems.  Before, they would exhibit O(N^2) performance, due to linear
2133  per-entry seek time cost when operating on entries in readdir order.
2134  Rm was improved directly, while the others inherit the improvement
2135  from the newer version of fts in gnulib.
2136
2137  comm now verifies that the inputs are in sorted order.  This check can
2138  be turned off with the --nocheck-order option.
2139
2140  comm accepts new option, --output-delimiter=STR, that allows specification
2141  of an output delimiter other than the default single TAB.
2142
2143  cp and mv: the deprecated --reply=X option is now also undocumented.
2144
2145  dd accepts iflag=fullblock to make it accumulate full input blocks.
2146  With this new option, after a short read, dd repeatedly calls read,
2147  until it fills the incomplete block, reaches EOF, or encounters an error.
2148
2149  df accepts a new option --total, which produces a grand total of all
2150  arguments after all arguments have been processed.
2151
2152  If the GNU MP library is available at configure time, factor and
2153  expr support arbitrarily large numbers.  Pollard's rho algorithm is
2154  used to factor large numbers.
2155
2156  install accepts a new option --strip-program to specify the program used to
2157  strip binaries.
2158
2159  ls now colorizes files with capabilities if libcap is available
2160
2161  ls -v now uses filevercmp function as sort predicate (instead of strverscmp)
2162
2163  md5sum now accepts the new option, --quiet, to suppress the printing of
2164  'OK' messages.  sha1sum, sha224sum, sha384sum, and sha512sum accept it, too.
2165
2166  sort accepts a new option, --files0-from=F, that specifies a file
2167  containing a null-separated list of files to sort.  This list is used
2168  instead of filenames passed on the command-line to avoid problems with
2169  maximum command-line (argv) length.
2170
2171  sort accepts a new option --batch-size=NMERGE, where NMERGE
2172  represents the maximum number of inputs that will be merged at once.
2173  When processing more than NMERGE inputs, sort uses temporary files.
2174
2175  sort accepts a new option --version-sort (-V, --sort=version),
2176  specifying that ordering is to be based on filevercmp.
2177
2178** Bug fixes
2179
2180  chcon --verbose now prints a newline after each message
2181
2182  od no longer suffers from platform bugs in printf(3).  This is
2183  probably most noticeable when using 'od -tfL' to print long doubles.
2184
2185  seq -0.1 0.1 2 now prints 2,0 when locale's decimal point is ",".
2186  Before, it would mistakenly omit the final number in that example.
2187
2188  shuf honors the --zero-terminated (-z) option, even with --input-range=LO-HI
2189
2190  shuf --head-count is now correctly documented.  The documentation
2191  previously claimed it was called --head-lines.
2192
2193** Improvements
2194
2195  Improved support for access control lists (ACLs): On MacOS X, Solaris 7..10,
2196  HP-UX 11, Tru64, AIX, IRIX 6.5, and Cygwin, "ls -l" now displays the presence
2197  of an ACL on a file via a '+' sign after the mode, and "cp -p" copies ACLs.
2198
2199  join has significantly better performance due to better memory management
2200
2201  ls now uses constant memory when not sorting and using one_per_line format,
2202  no matter how many files are in a given directory.  I.e., to list a directory
2203  with very many files, ls -1U is much more efficient.
2204
2205  od now aligns fields across lines when printing multiple -t
2206  specifiers, and no longer prints fields that resulted entirely from
2207  padding the input out to the least common multiple width.
2208
2209** Changes in behavior
2210
2211  stat's --context (-Z) option has always been a no-op.
2212  Now it evokes a warning that it is obsolete and will be removed.
2213
2214
2215* Noteworthy changes in release 6.12 (2008-05-31) [stable]
2216
2217** New features
2218
2219  cp, install, mv, and touch now preserve nanosecond resolution on
2220  file timestamps, on platforms that have the 'utimensat' and
2221  'futimens' system calls.
2222
2223** Bug fixes
2224
2225  chcon, runcon: --help output now includes the bug-reporting address
2226
2227  cp -p copies permissions more portably.  For example, on MacOS X 10.5,
2228  "cp -p some-fifo some-file" no longer fails while trying to copy the
2229  permissions from the some-fifo argument.
2230
2231  id with no options now prints the SELinux context only when invoked
2232  with no USERNAME argument.
2233
2234  id and groups once again print the AFS-specific nameless group-ID (PAG).
2235  Printing of such large-numbered, kernel-only (not in /etc/group) group-IDs
2236  was suppressed in 6.11 due to ignorance that they are useful.
2237
2238  uniq: avoid subtle field-skipping malfunction due to isblank misuse.
2239  In some locales on some systems, isblank(240) (aka &nbsp) is nonzero.
2240  On such systems, uniq --skip-fields=N would fail to skip the proper
2241  number of fields for some inputs.
2242
2243  tac: avoid segfault with --regex (-r) and multiple files, e.g.,
2244  "echo > x; tac -r x x".  [bug present at least in textutils-1.8b, from 1992]
2245
2246** Changes in behavior
2247
2248  install once again sets SELinux context, when possible
2249  [it was deliberately disabled in 6.9.90]
2250
2251
2252* Noteworthy changes in release 6.11 (2008-04-19) [stable]
2253
2254** Bug fixes
2255
2256  configure --enable-no-install-program=groups now works.
2257
2258  "cp -fR fifo E" now succeeds with an existing E.  Before this fix, using
2259  -fR to copy a fifo or "special" file onto an existing file would fail
2260  with EEXIST.  Now, it once again unlinks the destination before trying
2261  to create the destination file.  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.90]
2262
2263  dd once again works with unnecessary options like if=/dev/stdin and
2264  of=/dev/stdout.  [bug introduced in fileutils-4.0h]
2265
2266  id now uses getgrouplist, when possible.  This results in
2267  much better performance when there are many users and/or groups.
2268
2269  ls no longer segfaults on files in /proc when linked with an older version
2270  of libselinux.  E.g., ls -l /proc/sys would dereference a NULL pointer.
2271
2272  md5sum would segfault for invalid BSD-style input, e.g.,
2273  echo 'MD5 (' | md5sum -c -  Now, md5sum ignores that line.
2274  sha1sum, sha224sum, sha384sum, and sha512sum are affected, too.
2275  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.1.0]
2276
2277  md5sum -c would accept a NUL-containing checksum string like "abcd\0..."
2278  and would unnecessarily read and compute the checksum of the named file,
2279  and then compare that checksum to the invalid one: guaranteed to fail.
2280  Now, it recognizes that the line is not valid and skips it.
2281  sha1sum, sha224sum, sha384sum, and sha512sum are affected, too.
2282  [bug present in the original version, in coreutils-4.5.1, 1995]
2283
2284  "mkdir -Z x dir" no longer segfaults when diagnosing invalid context "x"
2285  mkfifo and mknod would fail similarly.  Now they're fixed.
2286
2287  mv would mistakenly unlink a destination file before calling rename,
2288  when the destination had two or more hard links.  It no longer does that.
2289  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.3.0]
2290
2291  "paste -d'\' file" no longer overruns memory (heap since coreutils-5.1.2,
2292  stack before then) [bug present in the original version, in 1992]
2293
2294  "pr -e" with a mix of backspaces and TABs no longer corrupts the heap
2295  [bug present in the original version, in 1992]
2296
2297  "ptx -F'\' long-file-name" would overrun a malloc'd buffer and corrupt
2298  the heap.  That was triggered by a lone backslash (or odd number of them)
2299  at the end of the option argument to --flag-truncation=STRING (-F),
2300  --word-regexp=REGEXP (-W), or --sentence-regexp=REGEXP (-S).
2301
2302  "rm -r DIR" would mistakenly declare to be "write protected" -- and
2303  prompt about -- full DIR-relative names longer than MIN (PATH_MAX, 8192).
2304
2305  "rmdir --ignore-fail-on-non-empty" detects and ignores the failure
2306  in more cases when a directory is empty.
2307
2308  "seq -f % 1" would issue the erroneous diagnostic "seq: memory exhausted"
2309  rather than reporting the invalid string format.
2310  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.0]
2311
2312** New features
2313
2314  join now verifies that the inputs are in sorted order.  This check can
2315  be turned off with the --nocheck-order option.
2316
2317  sort accepts the new option --sort=WORD, where WORD can be one of
2318  general-numeric, month, numeric or random.  These are equivalent to the
2319  options --general-numeric-sort/-g, --month-sort/-M, --numeric-sort/-n
2320  and --random-sort/-R, resp.
2321
2322** Improvements
2323
2324  id and groups work around an AFS-related bug whereby those programs
2325  would print an invalid group number, when given no user-name argument.
2326
2327  ls --color no longer outputs unnecessary escape sequences
2328
2329  seq gives better diagnostics for invalid formats.
2330
2331** Portability
2332
2333  rm now works properly even on systems like BeOS and Haiku,
2334  which have negative errno values.
2335
2336** Consistency
2337
2338  install, mkdir, rmdir and split now write --verbose output to stdout,
2339  not to stderr.
2340
2341
2342* Noteworthy changes in release 6.10 (2008-01-22) [stable]
2343
2344** Bug fixes
2345
2346  Fix a non-portable use of sed in configure.ac.
2347  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.9.92]
2348
2349
2350* Noteworthy changes in release 6.9.92 (2008-01-12) [beta]
2351
2352** Bug fixes
2353
2354  cp --parents no longer uses uninitialized memory when restoring the
2355  permissions of a just-created destination directory.
2356  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.9.90]
2357
2358  tr's case conversion would fail in a locale with differing numbers
2359  of lower case and upper case characters.  E.g., this would fail:
2360  env LC_CTYPE=en_US.ISO-8859-1 tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]'
2361  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.9.90]
2362
2363** Improvements
2364
2365  "touch -d now writable-but-owned-by-someone-else" now succeeds
2366  whenever that same command would succeed without "-d now".
2367  Before, it would work fine with no -d option, yet it would
2368  fail with the ostensibly-equivalent "-d now".
2369
2370
2371* Noteworthy changes in release 6.9.91 (2007-12-15) [beta]
2372
2373** Bug fixes
2374
2375  "ls -l" would not output "+" on SELinux hosts unless -Z was also given.
2376
2377  "rm" would fail to unlink a non-directory when run in an environment
2378  in which the user running rm is capable of unlinking a directory.
2379  [bug introduced in coreutils-6.9]
2380
2381
2382* Noteworthy changes in release 6.9.90 (2007-12-01) [beta]
2383
2384** New programs
2385
2386  arch: equivalent to uname -m, not installed by default
2387  But don't install this program on Solaris systems.
2388
2389  chcon: change the SELinux security context of a file
2390
2391  mktemp: create a temporary file or directory (or names)
2392
2393  runcon: run a program in a different SELinux security context
2394
2395** Programs no longer installed by default
2396
2397  hostname, su
2398
2399** Changes in behavior
2400
2401  cp, by default, refuses to copy through a dangling destination symlink
2402  Set POSIXLY_CORRECT if you require the old, risk-prone behavior.
2403
2404  pr -F no longer suppresses the footer or the first two blank lines in
2405  the header.  This is for compatibility with BSD and POSIX.
2406
2407  tr now warns about an unescaped backslash at end of string.
2408  The tr from coreutils-5.2.1 and earlier would fail for such usage,
2409  and Solaris' tr ignores that final byte.
2410
2411** New features
2412
2413  Add SELinux support, based on the patch from Fedora:
2414  * cp accepts new --preserve=context option.
2415  * "cp -a" works with SELinux:
2416  Now, cp -a attempts to preserve context, but failure to do so does
2417  not change cp's exit status.  However "cp --preserve=context" is
2418  similar, but failure *does* cause cp to exit with nonzero status.
2419  * install accepts new "-Z, --context=C" option.
2420  * id accepts new "-Z" option.
2421  * stat honors the new %C format directive: SELinux security context string
2422  * ls accepts a slightly modified -Z option.
2423  * ls: contrary to Fedora version, does not accept --lcontext and --scontext
2424
2425  The following commands and options now support the standard size
2426  suffixes kB, M, MB, G, GB, and so on for T, P, Y, Z, and Y:
2427  head -c, head -n, od -j, od -N, od -S, split -b, split -C,
2428  tail -c, tail -n.
2429
2430  cp -p tries to preserve the GID of a file even if preserving the UID
2431  is not possible.
2432
2433  uniq accepts a new option: --zero-terminated (-z).  As with the sort
2434  option of the same name, this makes uniq consume and produce
2435  NUL-terminated lines rather than newline-terminated lines.
2436
2437  wc no longer warns about character decoding errors in multibyte locales.
2438  This means for example that "wc /bin/sh" now produces normal output
2439  (though the word count will have no real meaning) rather than many
2440  error messages.
2441
2442** New build options
2443
2444  By default, "make install" no longer attempts to install (or even build) su.
2445  To change that, use ./configure --enable-install-program=su.
2446  If you also want to install the new "arch" program, do this:
2447  ./configure --enable-install-program=arch,su.
2448
2449  You can inhibit the compilation and installation of selected programs
2450  at configure time.  For example, to avoid installing "hostname" and
2451  "uptime", use ./configure --enable-no-install-program=hostname,uptime
2452  Note: currently, "make check" passes, even when arch and su are not
2453  built (that's the new default).  However, if you inhibit the building
2454  and installation of other programs, don't be surprised if some parts
2455  of "make check" fail.
2456
2457** Remove deprecated options
2458
2459  df no longer accepts the --kilobytes option.
2460  du no longer accepts the --kilobytes or --megabytes options.
2461  ls no longer accepts the --kilobytes option.
2462  ptx longer accepts the --copyright option.
2463  who no longer accepts -i or --idle.
2464
2465** Improved robustness
2466
2467  ln -f can no longer silently clobber a just-created hard link.
2468  In some cases, ln could be seen as being responsible for data loss.
2469  For example, given directories a, b, c, and files a/f and b/f, we
2470  should be able to do this safely: ln -f a/f b/f c && rm -f a/f b/f
2471  However, before this change, ln would succeed, and thus cause the
2472  loss of the contents of a/f.
2473
2474  stty no longer silently accepts certain invalid hex values
2475  in its 35-colon command-line argument
2476
2477** Bug fixes
2478
2479  chmod no longer ignores a dangling symlink.  Now, chmod fails
2480  with a diagnostic saying that it cannot operate on such a file.
2481  [bug introduced in coreutils-5.1.0]
2482
2483  cp attempts to read a regular file, even if stat says it is empty.
2484  Before, "cp /proc/cpuinfo c" would create an empty file when the kernel
2485  reports stat.st_size == 0, while "cat /proc/cpuinfo > c" would "work",
2486  and create a nonempty one. [bug introduced in coreutils-6.0]
2487
2488  cp --parents no longer mishandles symlinks to directories in file
2489  name components in the source, e.g., "cp --parents symlink/a/b d"
2490  no longer fails.  Also, 'cp' no longer considers a destination
2491  symlink to be the same as the referenced file when copying links
2492  or making backups.  For example, if SYM is a symlink to FILE,
2493  "cp -l FILE SYM" now reports an error instead of silently doing
2494  nothing.  The behavior of 'cp' is now better documented when the
2495  destination is a symlink.
2496
2497  "cp -i --update older newer" no longer prompts; same for mv
2498
2499  "cp -i" now detects read errors on standard input, and no longer consumes
2500  too much seekable input; same for ln, install, mv, and rm.
2501
2502  cut now diagnoses a range starting with zero (e.g., -f 0-2) as invalid;
2503  before, it would treat it as if it started with 1 (-f 1-2).
2504
2505  "cut -f 2-0" now fails; before, it was equivalent to "cut -f 2-"
2506
2507  cut now diagnoses the '-' in "cut -f -" as an invalid range, rather
2508  than interpreting it as the unlimited range, "1-".
2509
2510  date -d now accepts strings of the form e.g., 'YYYYMMDD +N days',
2511  in addition to the usual 'YYYYMMDD N days'.
2512
2513  du -s now includes the size of any stat'able-but-inaccessible directory
2514  in the total size.
2515
2516  du (without -s) prints whatever it knows of the size of an inaccessible
2517  directory.  Before, du would print nothing for such a directory.
2518
2519  ls -x DIR would sometimes output the wrong string in place of the
2520  first entry.  [introduced in coreutils-6.8]
2521
2522  ls --color would mistakenly color a dangling symlink as if it were
2523  a regular symlink.  This would happen only when the dangling symlink
2524  was not a command-line argument and in a directory with d_type support.
2525  [introduced in coreutils-6.0]
2526
2527  ls --color, (with a custom LS_COLORS envvar value including the
2528  ln=target attribute) would mistakenly output the string "target"
2529  before the name of each symlink.  [introduced in coreutils-6.0]
2530
2531  od's --skip (-j) option now works even when the kernel says that a
2532  nonempty regular file has stat.st_size = 0.  This happens at least
2533  with files in /proc and linux-2.6.22.
2534
2535  "od -j L FILE" had a bug: when the number of bytes to skip, L, is exactly
2536  the same as the length of FILE, od would skip *no* bytes.  When the number
2537  of bytes to skip is exactly the sum of the lengths of the first N files,
2538  od would skip only the first N-1 files. [introduced in textutils-2.0.9]
2539
2540  ./printf %.10000000f 1 could get an internal ENOMEM error and generate
2541  no output, yet erroneously exit with status 0.  Now it diagnoses the error
2542  and exits with nonzero status.  [present in initial implementation]
2543
2544  seq no longer mishandles obvious cases like "seq 0 0.000001 0.000003",
2545  so workarounds like "seq 0 0.000001 0.0000031" are no longer needed.
2546
2547  seq would mistakenly reject some valid format strings containing %%,
2548  and would mistakenly accept some invalid ones. e.g., %g%% and %%g, resp.
2549
2550  "seq .1 .1" would mistakenly generate no output on some systems
2551
2552  Obsolete sort usage with an invalid ordering-option character, e.g.,
2553  "env _POSIX2_VERSION=199209 sort +1x" no longer makes sort free an
2554  invalid pointer [introduced in coreutils-6.5]
2555
2556  sorting very long lines (relative to the amount of available memory)
2557  no longer provokes unaligned memory access
2558
2559  split --line-bytes=N (-C N) no longer creates an empty file
2560  [this bug is present at least as far back as textutils-1.22 (Jan, 1997)]
2561
2562  tr -c no longer aborts when translating with Set2 larger than the
2563  complement of Set1.  [present in the original version, in 1992]
2564
2565  tr no longer rejects an unmatched [:lower:] or [:upper:] in SET1.
2566  [present in the original version]
2567
2568
2569* Noteworthy changes in release 6.9 (2007-03-22) [stable]
2570
2571** Bug fixes
2572
2573  cp -x (--one-file-system) would fail to set mount point permissions
2574
2575  The default block size and output format for df -P are now unaffected by
2576  the DF_BLOCK_SIZE, BLOCK_SIZE, and BLOCKSIZE environment variables.  It
2577  is still affected by POSIXLY_CORRECT, though.
2578
2579  Using pr -m -s (i.e., merging files, with TAB as the output separator)
2580  no longer inserts extraneous spaces between output columns.
2581
2582* Noteworthy changes in release 6.8 (2007-02-24) [not-unstable]
2583
2584** Bug fixes
2585
2586  chgrp, chmod, and chown now honor the --preserve-root option.
2587  Before, they would warn, yet continuing traversing and operating on /.
2588
2589  chmod no longer fails in an environment (e.g., a chroot) with openat
2590  support but with insufficient /proc support.
2591
2592  "cp --parents F/G D" no longer creates a directory D/F when F is not
2593  a directory (and F/G is therefore invalid).
2594
2595  "cp --preserve=mode" would create directories that briefly had
2596  too-generous permissions in some cases.  For example, when copying a
2597  directory with permissions 777 the destination directory might
2598  temporarily be setgid on some file systems, which would allow other
2599  users to create subfiles with the same group as the directory.  Fix
2600  similar problems with 'install' and 'mv'.
2601
2602  cut no longer dumps core for usage like "cut -f2- f1 f2" with two or
2603  more file arguments.  This was due to a double-free bug, introduced
2604  in coreutils-5.3.0.
2605
2606  dd bs= operands now silently override any later ibs= and obs=
2607  operands, as POSIX and tradition require.
2608
2609  "ls -FRL" always follows symbolic links on Linux.  Introduced in
2610  coreutils-6.0.
2611
2612  A cross-partition "mv /etc/passwd ~" (by non-root) now prints
2613  a reasonable diagnostic.  Before, it would print this:
2614  "mv: cannot remove `/etc/passwd': Not a directory".
2615
2616  pwd and "readlink -e ." no longer fail unnecessarily when a parent
2617  directory is unreadable.
2618
2619  rm (without -f) could prompt when it shouldn't, or fail to prompt
2620  when it should, when operating on a full name longer than 511 bytes
2621  and getting an ENOMEM error while trying to form the long name.
2622
2623  rm could mistakenly traverse into the wrong directory under unusual
2624  conditions: when a full name longer than 511 bytes specifies a search-only
2625  directory, and when forming that name fails with ENOMEM, rm would attempt
2626  to open a truncated-to-511-byte name with the first five bytes replaced
2627  with "[...]".  If such a directory were to actually exist, rm would attempt
2628  to remove it.
2629
2630  "rm -rf /etc/passwd" (run by non-root) now prints a diagnostic.
2631  Before it would print nothing.
2632
2633  "rm --interactive=never F" no longer prompts for an unwritable F
2634
2635  "rm -rf D" would emit a misleading diagnostic when failing to
2636  remove a symbolic link within the unwritable directory, D.
2637  Introduced in coreutils-6.0.  Similarly, when a cross-partition
2638  "mv" fails because the source directory is unwritable, it now gives
2639  a reasonable diagnostic.  Before, this would print
2640    $ mkdir /tmp/x; touch /tmp/x/y; chmod -w /tmp/x;
2641    $ test $(stat -c %d /tmp/x) -ne $(stat -c %d .) && mv /tmp/x/y .
2642    mv: cannot remove `/tmp/x/y': Not a directory
2643  Now it prints this:
2644    mv: cannot remove `/tmp/x/y': Permission denied.
2645
2646** New features
2647
2648  sort's new --compress-program=PROG option specifies a compression
2649  program to use when writing and reading temporary files.
2650  This can help save both time and disk space when sorting large inputs.
2651
2652  sort accepts the new option -C, which acts like -c except no diagnostic
2653  is printed.  Its --check option now accepts an optional argument, and
2654  --check=quiet and --check=silent are now aliases for -C, while
2655  --check=diagnose-first is an alias for -c or plain --check.
2656
2657
2658* Noteworthy changes in release 6.7 (2006-12-08) [stable]
2659
2660** Bug fixes
2661
2662  When cp -p copied a file with special mode bits set, the same bits
2663  were set on the copy even when ownership could not be preserved.
2664  This could result in files that were setuid to the wrong user.
2665  To fix this, special mode bits are now set in the copy only if its
2666  ownership is successfully preserved.  Similar problems were fixed
2667  with mv when copying across file system boundaries.  This problem
2668  affects all versions of coreutils through 6.6.
2669
2670  cp --preserve=ownership would create output files that temporarily
2671  had too-generous permissions in some cases.  For example, when
2672  copying a file with group A and mode 644 into a group-B sticky
2673  directory, the output file was briefly readable by group B.
2674  Fix similar problems with cp options like -p that imply
2675  --preserve=ownership, with install -d when combined with either -o
2676  or -g, and with mv when copying across file system boundaries.
2677  This bug affects all versions of coreutils through 6.6.
2678
2679  du --one-file-system (-x) would skip subdirectories of any directory
2680  listed as second or subsequent command line argument.  This bug affects
2681  coreutils-6.4, 6.5 and 6.6.
2682
2683
2684* Noteworthy changes in release 6.6 (2006-11-22) [stable]
2685
2686** Bug fixes
2687
2688  ls would segfault (dereference a NULL pointer) for a file with a
2689  nameless group or owner.  This bug was introduced in coreutils-6.5.
2690
2691  A bug in the latest official m4/gettext.m4 (from gettext-0.15)
2692  made configure fail to detect gettext support, due to the unusual
2693  way in which coreutils uses AM_GNU_GETTEXT.
2694
2695** Improved robustness
2696
2697  Now, du (and the other fts clients: chmod, chgrp, chown) honor a
2698  trailing slash in the name of a symlink-to-directory even on
2699  Solaris 9, by working around its buggy fstatat implementation.
2700
2701
2702* Major changes in release 6.5 (2006-11-19) [stable]
2703
2704** Bug fixes
2705
2706  du (and the other fts clients: chmod, chgrp, chown) would exit early
2707  when encountering an inaccessible directory on a system with native
2708  openat support (i.e., linux-2.6.16 or newer along with glibc-2.4
2709  or newer).  This bug was introduced with the switch to gnulib's
2710  openat-based variant of fts, for coreutils-6.0.
2711
2712  "ln --backup f f" now produces a sensible diagnostic
2713
2714** New features
2715
2716  rm accepts a new option: --one-file-system
2717
2718
2719* Major changes in release 6.4 (2006-10-22) [stable]
2720
2721** Bug fixes
2722
2723  chgrp and chown would malfunction when invoked with both -R and -H and
2724  with one or more of the following: --preserve-root, --verbose, --changes,
2725  --from=o:g (chown only).  This bug was introduced with the switch to
2726  gnulib's openat-based variant of fts, for coreutils-6.0.
2727
2728  cp --backup dir1 dir2, would rename an existing dir2/dir1 to dir2/dir1~.
2729  This bug was introduced in coreutils-6.0.
2730
2731  With --force (-f), rm no longer fails for ENOTDIR.
2732  For example, "rm -f existing-non-directory/anything" now exits
2733  successfully, ignoring the error about a nonexistent file.
2734
2735
2736* Major changes in release 6.3 (2006-09-30) [stable]
2737
2738** Improved robustness
2739
2740  pinky no longer segfaults on Darwin 7.9.0 (MacOS X 10.3.9) due to a
2741  buggy native getaddrinfo function.
2742
2743  rm works around a bug in Darwin 7.9.0 (MacOS X 10.3.9) that would
2744  sometimes keep it from removing all entries in a directory on an HFS+
2745  or NFS-mounted partition.
2746
2747  sort would fail to handle very large input (around 40GB) on systems with a
2748  mkstemp function that returns a file descriptor limited to 32-bit offsets.
2749
2750** Bug fixes
2751
2752  chmod would fail unnecessarily in an unusual case: when an initially-
2753  inaccessible argument is rendered accessible by chmod's action on a
2754  preceding command line argument.  This bug also affects chgrp, but
2755  it is harder to demonstrate.  It does not affect chown.  The bug was
2756  introduced with the switch from explicit recursion to the use of fts
2757  in coreutils-5.1.0 (2003-10-15).
2758
2759  cp -i and mv -i occasionally neglected to prompt when the copy or move
2760  action was bound to fail.  This bug dates back to before fileutils-4.0.
2761
2762  With --verbose (-v), cp and mv would sometimes generate no output,
2763  or neglect to report file removal.
2764
2765  For the "groups" command:
2766
2767    "groups" no longer prefixes the output with "user :" unless more
2768    than one user is specified; this is for compatibility with BSD.
2769
2770    "groups user" now exits nonzero when it gets a write error.
2771
2772    "groups" now processes options like --help more compatibly.
2773
2774  shuf would infloop, given 8KB or more of piped input
2775
2776** Portability
2777
2778  Versions of chmod, chown, chgrp, du, and rm (tools that use openat etc.)
2779  compiled for Solaris 8 now also work when run on Solaris 10.
2780
2781
2782* Major changes in release 6.2 (2006-09-18) [stable candidate]
2783
2784** Changes in behavior
2785
2786  mkdir -p and install -d (or -D) now use a method that forks a child
2787  process if the working directory is unreadable and a later argument
2788  uses a relative file name.  This avoids some race conditions, but it
2789  means you may need to kill two processes to stop these programs.
2790
2791  rm now rejects attempts to remove the root directory, e.g., 'rm -fr /'
2792  now fails without removing anything.  Likewise for any file name with
2793  a final './' or '../' component.
2794
2795  tail now ignores the -f option if POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, no file
2796  operand is given, and standard input is any FIFO; formerly it did
2797  this only for pipes.
2798
2799** Infrastructure changes
2800
2801  Coreutils now uses gnulib via the gnulib-tool script.
2802  If you check the source out from CVS, then follow the instructions
2803  in README-cvs.  Although this represents a large change to the
2804  infrastructure, it should cause no change in how the tools work.
2805
2806** Bug fixes
2807
2808  cp --backup no longer fails when the last component of a source file
2809  name is "." or "..".
2810
2811  "ls --color" would highlight other-writable and sticky directories
2812  no differently than regular directories on a file system with
2813  dirent.d_type support.
2814
2815  "mv -T --verbose --backup=t A B" now prints the " (backup: B.~1~)"
2816  suffix when A and B are directories as well as when they are not.
2817
2818  mv and "cp -r" no longer fail when invoked with two arguments
2819  where the first one names a directory and the second name ends in
2820  a slash and doesn't exist.  E.g., "mv dir B/", for nonexistent B,
2821  now succeeds, once more.  This bug was introduced in coreutils-5.3.0.
2822
2823
2824* Major changes in release 6.1 (2006-08-19) [unstable]
2825
2826** Changes in behavior
2827
2828  df now considers BSD "kernfs" file systems to be dummies
2829
2830** New features
2831
2832  printf now supports the 'I' flag on hosts whose underlying printf
2833  implementations support 'I', e.g., "printf %Id 2".
2834
2835** Bug fixes
2836
2837  cp --sparse preserves sparseness at the end of a file, even when
2838  the file's apparent size is not a multiple of its block size.
2839  [introduced with the original design, in fileutils-4.0r, 2000-04-29]
2840
2841  df (with a command line argument) once again prints its header
2842  [introduced in coreutils-6.0]
2843
2844  ls -CF would misalign columns in some cases involving non-stat'able files
2845  [introduced in coreutils-6.0]
2846
2847* Major changes in release 6.0 (2006-08-15) [unstable]
2848
2849** Improved robustness
2850
2851  df: if the file system claims to have more available than total blocks,
2852  report the number of used blocks as being "total - available"
2853  (a negative number) rather than as garbage.
2854
2855  dircolors: a new autoconf run-test for AIX's buggy strndup function
2856  prevents malfunction on that system;  may also affect cut, expand,
2857  and unexpand.
2858
2859  fts no longer changes the current working directory, so its clients
2860  (chmod, chown, chgrp, du) no longer malfunction under extreme conditions.
2861
2862  pwd and other programs using lib/getcwd.c work even on file systems
2863  where dirent.d_ino values are inconsistent with those from stat.st_ino.
2864
2865  rm's core is now reentrant: rm --recursive (-r) now processes
2866  hierarchies without changing the working directory at all.
2867
2868** Changes in behavior
2869
2870  basename and dirname now treat // as different from / on platforms
2871  where the two are distinct.
2872
2873  chmod, install, and mkdir now preserve a directory's set-user-ID and
2874  set-group-ID bits unless you explicitly request otherwise.  E.g.,
2875  'chmod 755 DIR' and 'chmod u=rwx,go=rx DIR' now preserve DIR's
2876  set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits instead of clearing them, and
2877  similarly for 'mkdir -m 755 DIR' and 'mkdir -m u=rwx,go=rx DIR'.  To
2878  clear the bits, mention them explicitly in a symbolic mode, e.g.,
2879  'mkdir -m u=rwx,go=rx,-s DIR'.  To set them, mention them explicitly
2880  in either a symbolic or a numeric mode, e.g., 'mkdir -m 2755 DIR',
2881  'mkdir -m u=rwx,go=rx,g+s' DIR.  This change is for convenience on
2882  systems where these bits inherit from parents.  Unfortunately other
2883  operating systems are not consistent here, and portable scripts
2884  cannot assume the bits are set, cleared, or preserved, even when the
2885  bits are explicitly mentioned.  For example, OpenBSD 3.9 'mkdir -m
2886  777 D' preserves D's setgid bit but 'chmod 777 D' clears it.
2887  Conversely, Solaris 10 'mkdir -m 777 D', 'mkdir -m g-s D', and
2888  'chmod 0777 D' all preserve D's setgid bit, and you must use
2889  something like 'chmod g-s D' to clear it.
2890
2891  'cp --link --no-dereference' now works also on systems where the
2892  link system call cannot create a hard link to a symbolic link.
2893  This change has no effect on systems with a Linux-based kernel.
2894
2895  csplit and nl now use POSIX syntax for regular expressions, not
2896  Emacs syntax.  As a result, character classes like [[:print:]] and
2897  interval expressions like A\{1,9\} now have their usual meaning,
2898  . no longer matches the null character, and \ must precede the + and
2899  ? operators.
2900
2901  date: a command like date -d '2006-04-23 21 days ago' would print
2902  the wrong date in some time zones.  (see the test for an example)
2903
2904  df changes:
2905
2906    df now considers "none" and "proc" file systems to be dummies and
2907    therefore does not normally display them.  Also, inaccessible file
2908    systems (which can be caused by shadowed mount points or by
2909    chrooted bind mounts) are now dummies, too.
2910
2911    df now fails if it generates no output, so you can inspect the
2912    exit status of a command like "df -t ext3 -t reiserfs DIR" to test
2913    whether DIR is on a file system of type "ext3" or "reiserfs".
2914
2915  expr no longer complains about leading ^ in a regular expression
2916  (the anchor is ignored), or about regular expressions like A** (the
2917  second "*" is ignored).  expr now exits with status 2 (not 3) for
2918  errors it detects in the expression's values; exit status 3 is now
2919  used only for internal errors (such as integer overflow, which expr
2920  now checks for).
2921
2922  install and mkdir now implement the X permission symbol correctly,
2923  e.g., 'mkdir -m a+X dir'; previously the X was ignored.
2924
2925  install now creates parent directories with mode u=rwx,go=rx (755)
2926  instead of using the mode specified by the -m option; and it does
2927  not change the owner or group of parent directories.  This is for
2928  compatibility with BSD and closes some race conditions.
2929
2930  ln now uses different (and we hope clearer) diagnostics when it fails.
2931  ln -v now acts more like FreeBSD, so it generates output only when
2932  successful and the output is easier to parse.
2933
2934  ls now defaults to --time-style='locale', not --time-style='posix-long-iso'.
2935  However, the 'locale' time style now behaves like 'posix-long-iso'
2936  if your locale settings appear to be messed up.  This change
2937  attempts to have the default be the best of both worlds.
2938
2939  mkfifo and mknod no longer set special mode bits (setuid, setgid,
2940  and sticky) with the -m option.
2941
2942  nohup's usual diagnostic now more precisely specifies the I/O
2943  redirections, e.g., "ignoring input and appending output to
2944  nohup.out".  Also, nohup now redirects stderr to nohup.out (or
2945  $HOME/nohup.out) if stdout is closed and stderr is a tty; this is in
2946  response to Open Group XCU ERN 71.
2947
2948  rm --interactive now takes an optional argument, although the
2949  default of using no argument still acts like -i.
2950
2951  rm no longer fails to remove an empty, unreadable directory
2952
2953  seq changes:
2954
2955    seq defaults to a minimal fixed point format that does not lose
2956    information if seq's operands are all fixed point decimal numbers.
2957    You no longer need the '-f%.f' in 'seq -f%.f 1048575 1024 1050623',
2958    for example, since the default format now has the same effect.
2959
2960    seq now lets you use %a, %A, %E, %F, and %G formats.
2961
2962    seq now uses long double internally rather than double.
2963
2964  sort now reports incompatible options (e.g., -i and -n) rather than
2965  silently ignoring one of them.
2966
2967  stat's --format=FMT option now works the way it did before 5.3.0:
2968  FMT is automatically newline terminated.  The first stable release
2969  containing this change was 5.92.
2970
2971  stat accepts the new option --printf=FMT, where FMT is *not*
2972  automatically newline terminated.
2973
2974  stat: backslash escapes are interpreted in a format string specified
2975  via --printf=FMT, but not one specified via --format=FMT.  That includes
2976  octal (\ooo, at most three octal digits), hexadecimal (\xhh, one or
2977  two hex digits), and the standard sequences (\a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t,
2978  \v, \", \\).
2979
2980  With no operand, 'tail -f' now silently ignores the '-f' only if
2981  standard input is a FIFO or pipe and POSIXLY_CORRECT is set.
2982  Formerly, it ignored the '-f' when standard input was a FIFO, pipe,
2983  or socket.
2984
2985** Scheduled for removal
2986
2987  ptx's --copyright (-C) option is scheduled for removal in 2007, and
2988  now evokes a warning.  Use --version instead.
2989
2990  rm's --directory (-d) option is scheduled for removal in 2006.  This
2991  option has been silently ignored since coreutils 5.0.  On systems
2992  that support unlinking of directories, you can use the "unlink"
2993  command to unlink a directory.
2994
2995  Similarly, we are considering the removal of ln's --directory (-d,
2996  -F) option in 2006.  Please write to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org> if this
2997  would cause a problem for you.  On systems that support hard links
2998  to directories, you can use the "link" command to create one.
2999
3000** New programs
3001
3002  base64: base64 encoding and decoding (RFC 3548) functionality.
3003  sha224sum: print or check a SHA224 (224-bit) checksum
3004  sha256sum: print or check a SHA256 (256-bit) checksum
3005  sha384sum: print or check a SHA384 (384-bit) checksum
3006  sha512sum: print or check a SHA512 (512-bit) checksum
3007  shuf: Shuffle lines of text.
3008
3009** New features
3010
3011  chgrp now supports --preserve-root, --no-preserve-root (default),
3012  as it was documented to do, and just as chmod, chown, and rm do.
3013
3014  New dd iflag= and oflag= flags:
3015
3016    'directory' causes dd to fail unless the file is a directory, on
3017    hosts that support this (e.g., Linux kernels, version 2.1.126 and
3018    later).  This has limited utility but is present for completeness.
3019
3020    'noatime' causes dd to read a file without updating its access
3021    time, on hosts that support this (e.g., Linux kernels, version
3022    2.6.8 and later).
3023
3024    'nolinks' causes dd to fail if the file has multiple hard links,
3025    on hosts that support this (e.g., Solaris 10 and later).
3026
3027  ls accepts the new option --group-directories-first, to make it
3028  list directories before files.
3029
3030  rm now accepts the -I (--interactive=once) option.  This new option
3031  prompts once if rm is invoked recursively or if more than three
3032  files are being deleted, which is less intrusive than -i prompting
3033  for every file, but provides almost the same level of protection
3034  against mistakes.
3035
3036  shred and sort now accept the --random-source option.
3037
3038  sort now accepts the --random-sort (-R) option and 'R' ordering option.
3039
3040  sort now supports obsolete usages like "sort +1 -2" unless
3041  POSIXLY_CORRECT is set.  However, when conforming to POSIX
3042  1003.1-2001 "sort +1" still sorts the file named "+1".
3043
3044  wc accepts a new option --files0-from=FILE, where FILE contains a
3045  list of NUL-terminated file names.
3046
3047** Bug fixes
3048
3049  cat with any of the options, -A -v -e -E -T, when applied to a
3050  file in /proc or /sys (linux-specific), would truncate its output,
3051  usually printing nothing.
3052
3053  cp -p would fail in a /proc-less chroot, on some systems
3054
3055  When 'cp -RL' encounters the same directory more than once in the
3056  hierarchy beneath a single command-line argument, it no longer confuses
3057  them with hard-linked directories.
3058
3059  fts-using tools (chmod, chown, chgrp, du) no longer fail due to
3060  a double-free bug -- it could be triggered by making a directory
3061  inaccessible while e.g., du is traversing the hierarchy under it.
3062
3063  fts-using tools (chmod, chown, chgrp, du) no longer misinterpret
3064  a very long symlink chain as a dangling symlink.  Before, such a
3065  misinterpretation would cause these tools not to diagnose an ELOOP error.
3066
3067  ls --indicator-style=file-type would sometimes stat a symlink
3068  unnecessarily.
3069
3070  ls --file-type worked like --indicator-style=slash (-p),
3071  rather than like --indicator-style=file-type.
3072
3073  mv: moving a symlink into the place of an existing non-directory is
3074  now done atomically;  before, mv would first unlink the destination.
3075
3076  mv -T DIR EMPTY_DIR no longer fails unconditionally.  Also, mv can
3077  now remove an empty destination directory: mkdir -p a b/a; mv a b
3078
3079  rm (on systems with openat) can no longer exit before processing
3080  all command-line arguments.
3081
3082  rm is no longer susceptible to a few low-probability memory leaks.
3083
3084  rm -r no longer fails to remove an inaccessible and empty directory
3085
3086  rm -r's cycle detection code can no longer be tricked into reporting
3087  a false positive (introduced in fileutils-4.1.9).
3088
3089  shred --remove FILE no longer segfaults on Gentoo systems
3090
3091  sort would fail for large inputs (~50MB) on systems with a buggy
3092  mkstemp function.  sort and tac now use the replacement mkstemp
3093  function, and hence are no longer subject to limitations (of 26 or 32,
3094  on the maximum number of files from a given template) on HP-UX 10.20,
3095  SunOS 4.1.4, Solaris 2.5.1 and OSF1/Tru64 V4.0F&V5.1.
3096
3097  tail -f once again works on a file with the append-only
3098  attribute (affects at least Linux ext2, ext3, xfs file systems)
3099
3100* Major changes in release 5.97 (2006-06-24) [stable]
3101* Major changes in release 5.96 (2006-05-22) [stable]
3102* Major changes in release 5.95 (2006-05-12) [stable]
3103* Major changes in release 5.94 (2006-02-13) [stable]
3104
3105[see the b5_9x branch for details]
3106
3107* Major changes in release 5.93 (2005-11-06) [stable]
3108
3109** Bug fixes
3110
3111  dircolors no longer segfaults upon an attempt to use the new
3112  STICKY_OTHER_WRITABLE (OWT) attribute.
3113
3114  du no longer overflows a counter when processing a file larger than
3115  2^31-1 on some 32-bit systems (at least some AIX 5.1 configurations).
3116
3117  md5sum once again defaults to using the ' ' non-binary marker
3118  (rather than the '*' binary marker) by default on Unix-like systems.
3119
3120  mkdir -p and install -d no longer exit nonzero when asked to create
3121  a directory like 'nonexistent/.'
3122
3123  rm emits a better diagnostic when (without -r) it fails to remove
3124  a directory on e.g., Solaris 9/10 systems.
3125
3126  tac now works when stdin is a tty, even on non-Linux systems.
3127
3128  "tail -c 2 FILE" and "touch 0101000000" now operate as POSIX
3129  1003.1-2001 requires, even when coreutils is conforming to older
3130  POSIX standards, as the newly-required behavior is upward-compatible
3131  with the old.
3132
3133  The documentation no longer mentions rm's --directory (-d) option.
3134
3135** Build-related bug fixes
3136
3137  installing .mo files would fail
3138
3139
3140* Major changes in release 5.92 (2005-10-22) [stable]
3141
3142** Bug fixes
3143
3144  chmod now diagnoses an invalid mode string starting with an octal digit
3145
3146  dircolors now properly quotes single-quote characters
3147
3148
3149* Major changes in release 5.91 (2005-10-17) [stable candidate]
3150
3151** Bug fixes
3152
3153  "mkdir -p /a/b/c" no longer fails merely because a leading prefix
3154  directory (e.g., /a or /a/b) exists on a read-only file system.
3155
3156** Removed options
3157
3158  tail's --allow-missing option has been removed.  Use --retry instead.
3159
3160  stat's --link and -l options have been removed.
3161  Use --dereference (-L) instead.
3162
3163** Deprecated options
3164
3165  Using ls, du, or df with the --kilobytes option now evokes a warning
3166  that the long-named option is deprecated.  Use '-k' instead.
3167
3168  du's long-named --megabytes option now evokes a warning.
3169  Use -m instead.
3170
3171
3172* Major changes in release 5.90 (2005-09-29) [unstable]
3173
3174** Bring back support for 'head -NUM', 'tail -NUM', etc. even when
3175  conforming to POSIX 1003.1-2001.  The following changes apply only
3176  when conforming to POSIX 1003.1-2001; there is no effect when
3177  conforming to older POSIX versions.
3178
3179  The following usages now behave just as when conforming to older POSIX:
3180
3181    date -I
3182    expand -TAB1[,TAB2,...]
3183    fold -WIDTH
3184    head -NUM
3185    join -j FIELD
3186    join -j1 FIELD
3187    join -j2 FIELD
3188    join -o FIELD_NAME1 FIELD_NAME2...
3189    nice -NUM
3190    od -w
3191    pr -S
3192    split -NUM
3193    tail -[NUM][bcl][f] [FILE]
3194
3195  The following usages no longer work, due to the above changes:
3196
3197    date -I TIMESPEC  (use 'date -ITIMESPEC' instead)
3198    od -w WIDTH       (use 'od -wWIDTH' instead)
3199    pr -S STRING      (use 'pr -SSTRING' instead)
3200
3201  A few usages still have behavior that depends on which POSIX standard is
3202  being conformed to, and portable applications should beware these
3203  problematic usages.  These include:
3204
3205    Problematic       Standard-conforming replacement, depending on
3206       usage            whether you prefer the behavior of:
3207                      POSIX 1003.2-1992    POSIX 1003.1-2001
3208    sort +4           sort -k 5            sort ./+4
3209    tail +4           tail -n +4           tail ./+4
3210    tail - f          tail f               [see (*) below]
3211    tail -c 4         tail -c 10 ./4       tail -c4
3212    touch 12312359 f  touch -t 12312359 f  touch ./12312359 f
3213    uniq +4           uniq -s 4            uniq ./+4
3214
3215    (*) "tail - f" does not conform to POSIX 1003.1-2001; to read
3216    standard input and then "f", use the command "tail -- - f".
3217
3218  These changes are in response to decisions taken in the January 2005
3219  Austin Group standardization meeting.  For more details, please see
3220  "Utility Syntax Guidelines" in the Minutes of the January 2005
3221  Meeting <http://www.opengroup.org/austin/docs/austin_239.html>.
3222
3223** Binary input and output are now implemented more consistently.
3224  These changes affect only platforms like MS-DOS that distinguish
3225  between binary and text files.
3226
3227  The following programs now always use text input/output:
3228
3229    expand unexpand
3230
3231  The following programs now always use binary input/output to copy data:
3232
3233    cp install mv shred
3234
3235  The following programs now always use binary input/output to copy
3236  data, except for stdin and stdout when it is a terminal.
3237
3238    head tac tail tee tr
3239    (cat behaves similarly, unless one of the options -bensAE is used.)
3240
3241  cat's --binary or -B option has been removed.  It existed only on
3242  MS-DOS-like platforms, and didn't work as documented there.
3243
3244  md5sum and sha1sum now obey the -b or --binary option, even if
3245  standard input is a terminal, and they no longer report files to be
3246  binary if they actually read them in text mode.
3247
3248** Changes for better conformance to POSIX
3249
3250  cp, ln, mv, rm changes:
3251
3252    Leading white space is now significant in responses to yes-or-no questions.
3253    For example, if "rm" asks "remove regular file `foo'?" and you respond
3254    with " y" (i.e., space before "y"), it counts as "no".
3255
3256  dd changes:
3257
3258    On a QUIT or PIPE signal, dd now exits without printing statistics.
3259
3260    On hosts lacking the INFO signal, dd no longer treats the USR1
3261    signal as if it were INFO when POSIXLY_CORRECT is set.
3262
3263    If the file F is non-seekable and contains fewer than N blocks,
3264    then before copying "dd seek=N of=F" now extends F with zeroed
3265    blocks until F contains N blocks.
3266
3267  fold changes:
3268
3269    When POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, "fold file -3" is now equivalent to
3270    "fold file ./-3", not the obviously-erroneous "fold file ./-w3".
3271
3272  ls changes:
3273
3274    -p now marks only directories; it is equivalent to the new option
3275    --indicator-style=slash.  Use --file-type or
3276    --indicator-style=file-type to get -p's old behavior.
3277
3278  nice changes:
3279
3280    Documentation and diagnostics now refer to "nicenesses" (commonly
3281    in the range -20...19) rather than "nice values" (commonly 0...39).
3282
3283  nohup changes:
3284
3285    nohup now ignores the umask when creating nohup.out.
3286
3287    nohup now closes stderr if it is a terminal and stdout is closed.
3288
3289    nohup now exits with status 127 (not 1) when given an invalid option.
3290
3291  pathchk changes:
3292
3293    It now rejects the empty name in the normal case.  That is,
3294    "pathchk -p ''" now fails, and "pathchk ''" fails unless the
3295    current host (contra POSIX) allows empty file names.
3296
3297    The new -P option checks whether a file name component has leading "-",
3298    as suggested in interpretation "Austin-039:XCU:pathchk:pathchk -p"
3299    <http://www.opengroup.org/austin/interps/doc.tpl?gdid=6232>.
3300    It also rejects the empty name even if the current host accepts it; see
3301    <http://www.opengroup.org/austin/interps/doc.tpl?gdid=6233>.
3302
3303    The --portability option is now equivalent to -p -P.
3304
3305** Bug fixes
3306
3307  chmod, mkdir, mkfifo, and mknod formerly mishandled rarely-used symbolic
3308  permissions like =xX and =u, and did not properly diagnose some invalid
3309  strings like g+gr, ug,+x, and +1.  These bugs have been fixed.
3310
3311  csplit could produce corrupt output, given input lines longer than 8KB
3312
3313  dd now computes statistics using a realtime clock (if available)
3314  rather than the time-of-day clock, to avoid glitches if the
3315  time-of-day is changed while dd is running.  Also, it avoids
3316  using unsafe code in signal handlers; this fixes some core dumps.
3317
3318  expr and test now correctly compare integers of unlimited magnitude.
3319
3320  expr now detects integer overflow when converting strings to integers,
3321  rather than silently wrapping around.
3322
3323  ls now refuses to generate time stamps containing more than 1000 bytes, to
3324  foil potential denial-of-service attacks on hosts with very large stacks.
3325
3326  "mkdir -m =+x dir" no longer ignores the umask when evaluating "+x",
3327  and similarly for mkfifo and mknod.
3328
3329  "mkdir -p /tmp/a/b dir" no longer attempts to create the '.'-relative
3330  directory, dir (in /tmp/a), when, after creating /tmp/a/b, it is unable
3331  to return to its initial working directory.  Similarly for "install -D
3332  file /tmp/a/b/file".
3333
3334  "pr -D FORMAT" now accepts the same formats that "date +FORMAT" does.
3335
3336  stat now exits nonzero if a file operand does not exist
3337
3338** Improved robustness
3339
3340  Date no longer needs to allocate virtual memory to do its job,
3341  so it can no longer fail due to an out-of-memory condition,
3342  no matter how large the result.
3343
3344** Improved portability
3345
3346  hostid now prints exactly 8 hexadecimal digits, possibly with leading zeros,
3347  and without any spurious leading "fff..." on 64-bit hosts.
3348
3349  nice now works on Darwin 7.7.0 in spite of its invalid definition of NZERO.
3350
3351  'rm -r' can remove all entries in a directory even when it is on a
3352  file system for which readdir is buggy and that was not checked by
3353  coreutils' old configure-time run-test.
3354
3355  sleep no longer fails when resumed after being suspended on linux-2.6.8.1,
3356  in spite of that kernel's buggy nanosleep implementation.
3357
3358** New features
3359
3360  chmod -w now complains if its behavior differs from what chmod a-w
3361  would do, and similarly for chmod -r, chmod -x, etc.
3362
3363  cp and mv: the --reply=X option is deprecated
3364
3365  date accepts the new option --rfc-3339=TIMESPEC.  The old --iso-8601 (-I)
3366  option is deprecated; it still works, but new applications should avoid it.
3367  date, du, ls, and pr's time formats now support new %:z, %::z, %:::z
3368  specifiers for numeric time zone offsets like -07:00, -07:00:00, and -07.
3369
3370  dd has new iflag= and oflag= flags "binary" and "text", which have an
3371  effect only on nonstandard platforms that distinguish text from binary I/O.
3372
3373  dircolors now supports SETUID, SETGID, STICKY_OTHER_WRITABLE,
3374  OTHER_WRITABLE, and STICKY, with ls providing default colors for these
3375  categories if not specified by dircolors.
3376
3377  du accepts new options: --time[=TYPE] and --time-style=STYLE
3378
3379  join now supports a NUL field separator, e.g., "join -t '\0'".
3380  join now detects and reports incompatible options, e.g., "join -t x -t y",
3381
3382  ls no longer outputs an extra space between the mode and the link count
3383  when none of the listed files has an ACL.
3384
3385  md5sum --check now accepts multiple input files, and similarly for sha1sum.
3386
3387  If stdin is a terminal, nohup now redirects it from /dev/null to
3388  prevent the command from tying up an OpenSSH session after you logout.
3389
3390  "rm -FOO" now suggests "rm ./-FOO" if the file "-FOO" exists and
3391  "-FOO" is not a valid option.
3392
3393  stat -f -c %S outputs the fundamental block size (used for block counts).
3394  stat -f's default output format has been changed to output this size as well.
3395  stat -f recognizes file systems of type XFS and JFS
3396
3397  "touch -" now touches standard output, not a file named "-".
3398
3399  uname -a no longer generates the -p and -i outputs if they are unknown.
3400
3401* Major changes in release 5.3.0 (2005-01-08) [unstable]
3402
3403** Bug fixes
3404
3405  Several fixes to chgrp and chown for compatibility with POSIX and BSD:
3406
3407    Do not affect symbolic links by default.
3408    Now, operate on whatever a symbolic link points to, instead.
3409    To get the old behavior, use --no-dereference (-h).
3410
3411    --dereference now works, even when the specified owner
3412    and/or group match those of an affected symlink.
3413
3414    Check for incompatible options.  When -R and --dereference are
3415    both used, then either -H or -L must also be used.  When -R and -h
3416    are both used, then -P must be in effect.
3417
3418    -H, -L, and -P have no effect unless -R is also specified.
3419    If -P and -R are both specified, -h is assumed.
3420
3421    Do not optimize away the chown() system call when the file's owner
3422    and group already have the desired value.  This optimization was
3423    incorrect, as it failed to update the last-changed time and reset
3424    special permission bits, as POSIX requires.
3425
3426    "chown : file", "chown '' file", and "chgrp '' file" now succeed
3427    without changing the uid or gid, instead of reporting an error.
3428
3429    Do not report an error if the owner or group of a
3430    recursively-encountered symbolic link cannot be updated because
3431    the file system does not support it.
3432
3433  chmod now accepts multiple mode-like options, e.g., "chmod -r -w f".
3434
3435  chown is no longer subject to a race condition vulnerability, when
3436  used with --from=O:G and without the (-h) --no-dereference option.
3437
3438  cut's --output-delimiter=D option works with abutting byte ranges.
3439
3440  dircolors's documentation now recommends that shell scripts eval
3441  "`dircolors`" rather than `dircolors`, to avoid shell expansion pitfalls.
3442
3443  du no longer segfaults when a subdirectory of an operand
3444  directory is removed while du is traversing that subdirectory.
3445  Since the bug was in the underlying fts.c module, it also affected
3446  chown, chmod, and chgrp.
3447
3448  du's --exclude-from=FILE and --exclude=P options now compare patterns
3449  against the entire name of each file, rather than against just the
3450  final component.
3451
3452  echo now conforms to POSIX better.  It supports the \0ooo syntax for
3453  octal escapes, and \c now terminates printing immediately.  If
3454  POSIXLY_CORRECT is set and the first argument is not "-n", echo now
3455  outputs all option-like arguments instead of treating them as options.
3456
3457  expand and unexpand now conform to POSIX better.  They check for
3458  blanks (which can include characters other than space and tab in
3459  non-POSIX locales) instead of spaces and tabs.  Unexpand now
3460  preserves some blanks instead of converting them to tabs or spaces.
3461
3462  "ln x d/" now reports an error if d/x is a directory and x a file,
3463  instead of incorrectly creating a link to d/x/x.
3464
3465  ls no longer segfaults on systems for which SIZE_MAX != (size_t) -1.
3466
3467  md5sum and sha1sum now report an error when given so many input
3468  lines that their line counter overflows, instead of silently
3469  reporting incorrect results.
3470
3471  Fixes for "nice":
3472
3473    If it fails to lower the niceness due to lack of permissions,
3474    it goes ahead and runs the command anyway, as POSIX requires.
3475
3476    It no longer incorrectly reports an error if the current niceness
3477    happens to be -1.
3478
3479    It no longer assumes that nicenesses range from -20 through 19.
3480
3481    It now consistently adjusts out-of-range nicenesses to the
3482    closest values in range; formerly it sometimes reported an error.
3483
3484  pathchk no longer accepts trailing options, e.g., "pathchk -p foo -b"
3485  now treats -b as a file name to check, not as an invalid option.
3486
3487  'pr --columns=N' was not equivalent to 'pr -N' when also using
3488  either -s or -w.
3489
3490  pr now supports page numbers up to 2**64 on most hosts, and it
3491  detects page number overflow instead of silently wrapping around.
3492  pr now accepts file names that begin with "+" so long as the rest of
3493  the file name does not look like a page range.
3494
3495  printf has several changes:
3496
3497    It now uses 'intmax_t' (not 'long int') to format integers, so it
3498    can now format 64-bit integers on most modern hosts.
3499
3500    On modern hosts it now supports the C99-inspired %a, %A, %F conversion
3501    specs, the "'" and "0" flags, and the ll, j, t, and z length modifiers
3502    (this is compatible with recent Bash versions).
3503
3504    The printf command now rejects invalid conversion specifications
3505    like %#d, instead of relying on undefined behavior in the underlying
3506    printf function.
3507
3508  ptx now diagnoses invalid values for its --width=N (-w)
3509  and --gap-size=N (-g) options.
3510
3511  mv (when moving between partitions) no longer fails when
3512  operating on too many command-line-specified nonempty directories.
3513
3514  "readlink -f" is more compatible with prior implementations
3515
3516  rm (without -f) no longer hangs when attempting to remove a symlink
3517  to a file on an off-line NFS-mounted partition.
3518
3519  rm no longer gets a failed assertion under some unusual conditions.
3520
3521  rm no longer requires read access to the current directory.
3522
3523  "rm -r" would mistakenly fail to remove files under a directory
3524  for some types of errors (e.g., read-only file system, I/O error)
3525  when first encountering the directory.
3526
3527  "sort" fixes:
3528
3529    "sort -o -" now writes to a file named "-" instead of to standard
3530    output; POSIX requires this.
3531
3532    An unlikely race condition has been fixed where "sort" could have
3533    mistakenly removed a temporary file belonging to some other process.
3534
3535    "sort" no longer has O(N**2) behavior when it creates many temporary files.
3536
3537  tac can now handle regular, nonseekable files like Linux's
3538  /proc/modules.  Before, it would produce no output for such a file.
3539
3540  tac would exit immediately upon I/O or temp-file creation failure.
3541  Now it continues on, processing any remaining command line arguments.
3542
3543  "tail -f" no longer mishandles pipes and fifos.  With no operands,
3544  tail now ignores -f if standard input is a pipe, as POSIX requires.
3545  When conforming to POSIX 1003.2-1992, tail now supports the SUSv2 b
3546  modifier (e.g., "tail -10b file") and it handles some obscure cases
3547  more correctly, e.g., "tail +cl" now reads the file "+cl" rather
3548  than reporting an error, "tail -c file" no longer reports an error,
3549  and "tail - file" no longer reads standard input.
3550
3551  tee now exits when it gets a SIGPIPE signal, as POSIX requires.
3552  To get tee's old behavior, use the shell command "(trap '' PIPE; tee)".
3553  Also, "tee -" now writes to standard output instead of to a file named "-".
3554
3555  "touch -- MMDDhhmm[yy] file" is now equivalent to
3556  "touch MMDDhhmm[yy] file" even when conforming to pre-2001 POSIX.
3557
3558  tr no longer mishandles a second operand with leading "-".
3559
3560  who now prints user names in full instead of truncating them after 8 bytes.
3561
3562  The following commands now reject unknown options instead of
3563  accepting them as operands, so that users are properly warned that
3564  options may be added later.  Formerly they accepted unknown options
3565  as operands; e.g., "basename -a a" acted like "basename -- -a a".
3566
3567    basename dirname factor hostname link nohup sync unlink yes
3568
3569** New features
3570
3571  For efficiency, 'sort -m' no longer copies input to a temporary file
3572  merely because the input happens to come from a pipe.  As a result,
3573  some relatively-contrived examples like 'cat F | sort -m -o F - G'
3574  are no longer safe, as 'sort' might start writing F before 'cat' is
3575  done reading it.  This problem cannot occur unless '-m' is used.
3576
3577  When outside the default POSIX locale, the 'who' and 'pinky'
3578  commands now output time stamps like "2004-06-21 13:09" instead of
3579  the traditional "Jun 21 13:09".
3580
3581  pwd now works even when run from a working directory whose name
3582  is longer than PATH_MAX.
3583
3584  cp, install, ln, and mv have a new --no-target-directory (-T) option,
3585  and -t is now a short name for their --target-directory option.
3586
3587  cp -pu and mv -u (when copying) now don't bother to update the
3588  destination if the resulting time stamp would be no newer than the
3589  preexisting time stamp.  This saves work in the common case when
3590  copying or moving multiple times to the same destination in a file
3591  system with a coarse time stamp resolution.
3592
3593  cut accepts a new option, --complement, to complement the set of
3594  selected bytes, characters, or fields.
3595
3596  dd now also prints the number of bytes transferred, the time, and the
3597  transfer rate.  The new "status=noxfer" operand suppresses this change.
3598
3599  dd has new conversions for the conv= option:
3600
3601    nocreat   do not create the output file
3602    excl      fail if the output file already exists
3603    fdatasync physically write output file data before finishing
3604    fsync     likewise, but also write metadata
3605
3606  dd has new iflag= and oflag= options with the following flags:
3607
3608    append    append mode (makes sense for output file only)
3609    direct    use direct I/O for data
3610    dsync     use synchronized I/O for data
3611    sync      likewise, but also for metadata
3612    nonblock  use non-blocking I/O
3613    nofollow  do not follow symlinks
3614    noctty    do not assign controlling terminal from file
3615
3616  stty now provides support (iutf8) for setting UTF-8 input mode.
3617
3618  With stat, a specified format is no longer automatically newline terminated.
3619  If you want a newline at the end of your output, append '\n' to the format
3620  string.
3621
3622  'df', 'du', and 'ls' now take the default block size from the
3623  BLOCKSIZE environment variable if the BLOCK_SIZE, DF_BLOCK_SIZE,
3624  DU_BLOCK_SIZE, and LS_BLOCK_SIZE environment variables are not set.
3625  Unlike the other variables, though, BLOCKSIZE does not affect
3626  values like 'ls -l' sizes that are normally displayed as bytes.
3627  This new behavior is for compatibility with BSD.
3628
3629  du accepts a new option --files0-from=FILE, where FILE contains a
3630  list of NUL-terminated file names.
3631
3632  Date syntax as used by date -d, date -f, and touch -d has been
3633  changed as follows:
3634
3635    Dates like 'January 32' with out-of-range components are now rejected.
3636
3637    Dates can have fractional time stamps like 2004-02-27 14:19:13.489392193.
3638
3639    Dates can be entered via integer counts of seconds since 1970 when
3640    prefixed by '@'.  For example, '@321' represents 1970-01-01 00:05:21 UTC.
3641
3642    Time zone corrections can now separate hours and minutes with a colon,
3643    and can follow standard abbreviations like "UTC".  For example,
3644    "UTC +0530" and "+05:30" are supported, and are both equivalent to "+0530".
3645
3646    Date values can now have leading TZ="..." assignments that override
3647    the environment only while that date is being processed.  For example,
3648    the following shell command converts from Paris to New York time:
3649
3650      TZ="America/New_York" date --date='TZ="Europe/Paris" 2004-10-31 06:30'
3651
3652  'date' has a new option --iso-8601=ns that outputs
3653  nanosecond-resolution time stamps.
3654
3655  echo -e '\xHH' now outputs a byte whose hexadecimal value is HH,
3656  for compatibility with bash.
3657
3658  ls now exits with status 1 on minor problems, 2 if serious trouble.
3659
3660  ls has a new --hide=PATTERN option that behaves like
3661  --ignore=PATTERN, except that it is overridden by -a or -A.
3662  This can be useful for aliases, e.g., if lh is an alias for
3663  "ls --hide='*~'", then "lh -A" lists the file "README~".
3664
3665  In the following cases POSIX allows the default GNU behavior,
3666  so when POSIXLY_CORRECT is set:
3667
3668    false, printf, true, unlink, and yes all support --help and --option.
3669    ls supports TABSIZE.
3670    pr no longer depends on LC_TIME for the date format in non-POSIX locales.
3671    printf supports \u, \U, \x.
3672    tail supports two or more files when using the obsolete option syntax.
3673
3674  The usual '--' operand is now supported by chroot, hostid, hostname,
3675  pwd, sync, and yes.
3676
3677  'od' now conforms to POSIX better, and is more compatible with BSD:
3678
3679    The older syntax "od [-abcdfilosx]... [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b]]" now works
3680    even without --traditional.  This is a change in behavior if there
3681    are one or two operands and the last one begins with +, or if
3682    there are two operands and the latter one begins with a digit.
3683    For example, "od foo 10" and "od +10" now treat the last operand as
3684    an offset, not as a file name.
3685
3686    -h is no longer documented, and may be withdrawn in future versions.
3687    Use -x or -t x2 instead.
3688
3689    -i is now equivalent to -t dI (not -t d2), and
3690    -l is now equivalent to -t dL (not -t d4).
3691
3692    -s is now equivalent to -t d2.  The old "-s[NUM]" or "-s NUM"
3693    option has been renamed to "-S NUM".
3694
3695    The default output format is now -t oS, not -t o2, i.e., short int
3696    rather than two-byte int.  This makes a difference only on hosts like
3697    Cray systems where the C short int type requires more than two bytes.
3698
3699  readlink accepts new options: --canonicalize-existing (-e)
3700  and --canonicalize-missing (-m).
3701
3702  The stat option --filesystem has been renamed to --file-system, for
3703  consistency with POSIX "file system" and with cp and du --one-file-system.
3704
3705** Removed features
3706
3707  md5sum and sha1sum's undocumented --string option has been removed.
3708
3709  tail's undocumented --max-consecutive-size-changes option has been removed.
3710
3711* Major changes in release 5.2.1 (2004-03-12) [stable]
3712
3713** Bug fixes
3714
3715  mv could mistakenly fail to preserve hard links when moving two
3716  or more arguments between partitions.
3717
3718  'cp --sparse=always F /dev/hdx' no longer tries to use lseek to create
3719  holes in the destination.
3720
3721  nohup now sets the close-on-exec flag for its copy of the stderr file
3722  descriptor.  This avoids some nohup-induced hangs.  For example, before
3723  this change, if you ran 'ssh localhost', then 'nohup sleep 600 </dev/null &',
3724  and then exited that remote shell, the ssh session would hang until the
3725  10-minute sleep terminated.  With the fixed nohup, the ssh session
3726  terminates immediately.
3727
3728  'expr' now conforms to POSIX better:
3729
3730    Integers like -0 and 00 are now treated as zero.
3731
3732    The '|' operator now returns 0, not its first argument, if both
3733    arguments are null or zero.  E.g., 'expr "" \| ""' now returns 0,
3734    not the empty string.
3735
3736    The '|' and '&' operators now use short-circuit evaluation, e.g.,
3737    'expr 1 \| 1 / 0' no longer reports a division by zero.
3738
3739** New features
3740
3741  'chown user.group file' now has its traditional meaning even when
3742  conforming to POSIX 1003.1-2001, so long as no user has a name
3743  containing '.' that happens to equal 'user.group'.
3744
3745
3746* Major changes in release 5.2.0 (2004-02-19) [stable]
3747
3748** Bug fixes
3749
3750  none
3751
3752
3753* Major changes in release 5.1.3 (2004-02-08): candidate to become stable 5.2.0
3754
3755** Bug fixes
3756
3757  'cp -d' now works as required even on systems like OSF V5.1 that
3758  declare stat and lstat as 'static inline' functions.
3759
3760  time stamps output by stat now include actual fractional seconds,
3761  when available -- or .0000000 for files without that information.
3762
3763  seq no longer infloops when printing 2^31 or more numbers.
3764  For reference, seq `echo 2^31|bc` > /dev/null takes about one hour
3765  on a 1.6 GHz Athlon 2000 XP.  Now it can output 2^53-1 numbers before
3766  misbehaving.
3767
3768* Major changes in release 5.1.2 (2004-01-25):
3769
3770** Bug fixes
3771
3772  rmdir -p exits with status 1 on error; formerly it sometimes exited
3773  with status 0 when given more than one argument.
3774
3775  nohup now always exits with status 127 when it finds an error,
3776  as POSIX requires; formerly it sometimes exited with status 1.
3777
3778  Several programs (including cut, date, dd, env, hostname, nl, pr,
3779  stty, and tr) now always exit with status 1 when they find an error;
3780  formerly they sometimes exited with status 2.
3781
3782  factor no longer reports a usage error if stdin has the wrong format.
3783
3784  paste no longer infloops on ppc systems (bug introduced in 5.1.1)
3785
3786
3787* Major changes in release 5.1.1 (2004-01-17):
3788
3789** Configuration option
3790
3791  You can select the default level of POSIX conformance at configure-time,
3792  e.g., by ./configure DEFAULT_POSIX2_VERSION=199209
3793
3794** Bug fixes
3795
3796  fold -s works once again on systems with differing sizes for int
3797  and size_t (bug introduced in 5.1.0)
3798
3799** New features
3800
3801  touch -r now specifies the origin for any relative times in the -d
3802  operand, if both options are given.  For example, "touch -r FOO -d
3803  '-5 seconds' BAR" sets BAR's modification time to be five seconds
3804  before FOO's.
3805
3806  join: The obsolete options "-j1 FIELD", "-j2 FIELD", and
3807  "-o LIST1 LIST2..." are no longer supported on POSIX 1003.1-2001 systems.
3808  Portable scripts should use "-1 FIELD", "-2 FIELD", and
3809  "-o LIST1,LIST2..." respectively.  If join was compiled on a
3810  POSIX 1003.1-2001 system, you may enable the old behavior
3811  by setting _POSIX2_VERSION=199209 in your environment.
3812  [This change was reverted in coreutils 5.3.1.]
3813
3814
3815* Major changes in release 5.1.0 (2003-12-21):
3816
3817** New features
3818
3819  chgrp, chmod, and chown can now process (with -R) hierarchies of virtually
3820  unlimited depth.  Before, they would fail to operate on any file they
3821  encountered with a relative name of length PATH_MAX (often 4096) or longer.
3822
3823  chgrp, chmod, chown, and rm accept the new options:
3824  --preserve-root, --no-preserve-root (default)
3825
3826  chgrp and chown now accept POSIX-mandated -L, -H, and -P options
3827
3828  du can now process hierarchies of virtually unlimited depth.
3829  Before, du was limited by the user's stack size and it would get a
3830  stack overflow error (often a segmentation fault) when applied to
3831  a hierarchy of depth around 30,000 or larger.
3832
3833  du works even when run from an inaccessible directory
3834
3835  du -D now dereferences all symlinks specified on the command line,
3836  not just the ones that reference directories
3837
3838  du now accepts -P (--no-dereference), for compatibility with du
3839  of NetBSD and for consistency with e.g., chown and chgrp
3840
3841  du's -H option will soon have the meaning required by POSIX
3842  (--dereference-args, aka -D) rather then the current meaning of --si.
3843  Now, using -H elicits a warning to that effect.
3844
3845  When given -l and similar options, ls now adjusts the output column
3846  widths to fit the data, so that output lines are shorter and have
3847  columns that line up better.  This may adversely affect shell
3848  scripts that expect fixed-width columns, but such shell scripts were
3849  not portable anyway, even with old GNU ls where the columns became
3850  ragged when a datum was too wide.
3851
3852  du accepts a new option, -0/--null, to make it produce NUL-terminated
3853  output lines
3854
3855** Bug fixes
3856
3857  printf, seq, tail, and sleep now parse floating-point operands
3858  and options in the C locale.  POSIX requires this for printf.
3859
3860  od -c -w9999999 no longer segfaults
3861
3862  csplit no longer reads from freed memory (dumping core on some systems)
3863
3864  csplit would mistakenly exhaust virtual memory in some cases
3865
3866  ls --width=N (for very large N) is no longer subject to an address
3867  arithmetic bug that could result in bounds violations.
3868
3869  ls --width=N (with -x or -C) no longer allocates more space
3870  (potentially much more) than necessary for a given directory.
3871
3872  dd 'unblock' and 'sync' may now be combined (e.g., dd conv=unblock,sync)
3873
3874* Major changes in release 5.0.91 (2003-09-08):
3875
3876** New features
3877
3878  date accepts a new option --rfc-2822, an alias for --rfc-822.
3879
3880  split accepts a new option -d or --numeric-suffixes.
3881
3882  cp, install, mv, and touch now preserve microsecond resolution on
3883  file timestamps, on platforms that have the 'utimes' system call.
3884  Unfortunately there is no system call yet to preserve file
3885  timestamps to their full nanosecond resolution; microsecond
3886  resolution is the best we can do right now.
3887
3888  sort now supports the zero byte (NUL) as a field separator; use -t '\0'.
3889  The -t '' option, which formerly had no effect, is now an error.
3890
3891  sort option order no longer matters for the options -S, -d, -i, -o, and -t.
3892  Stronger options override weaker, and incompatible options are diagnosed.
3893
3894  'sha1sum --check' now accepts the BSD format for SHA1 message digests
3895  in addition to the BSD format for MD5 ones.
3896
3897  who -l now means 'who --login', not 'who --lookup', per POSIX.
3898  who's -l option has been eliciting an unconditional warning about
3899  this impending change since sh-utils-2.0.12 (April 2002).
3900
3901** Bug fixes
3902
3903  Mistakenly renaming a file onto itself, e.g., via 'mv B b' when 'B' is
3904  the same directory entry as 'b' no longer destroys the directory entry
3905  referenced by both 'b' and 'B'.  Note that this would happen only on
3906  file systems like VFAT where two different names may refer to the same
3907  directory entry, usually due to lower->upper case mapping of file names.
3908  Now, the above can happen only on file systems that perform name mapping and
3909  that support hard links (stat.st_nlink > 1).  This mitigates the problem
3910  in two ways: few file systems appear to be affected (hpfs and ntfs are),
3911  when the bug is triggered, mv no longer removes the last hard link to a file.
3912  *** ATTENTION ***: if you know how to distinguish the following two cases
3913  without writing to the file system in question, please let me know:
3914  1) B and b refer to the same directory entry on a file system like NTFS
3915       (B may well have a link count larger than 1)
3916  2) B and b are hard links to the same file
3917
3918  stat no longer overruns a buffer for format strings ending in '%'
3919
3920  fold -s -wN would infloop for N < 8 with TABs in the input.
3921  E.g., this would not terminate: printf 'a\t' | fold -w2 -s
3922
3923  'split -a0', although of questionable utility, is accepted once again.
3924
3925  'df DIR' used to hang under some conditions on OSF/1 5.1.  Now it doesn't.
3926
3927  seq's --width (-w) option now works properly even when the endpoint
3928  requiring the larger width is negative and smaller than the other endpoint.
3929
3930  seq's default step is 1, even if LAST < FIRST.
3931
3932  paste no longer mistakenly outputs 0xFF bytes for a nonempty input file
3933  without a trailing newline.
3934
3935  'tail -n0 -f FILE' and 'tail -c0 -f FILE' no longer perform what amounted
3936  to a busy wait, rather than sleeping between iterations.
3937
3938  tail's long-undocumented --allow-missing option now elicits a warning
3939
3940
3941* Major changes in release 5.0.90 (2003-07-29):
3942
3943** New features
3944
3945  sort is now up to 30% more CPU-efficient in some cases
3946
3947  'test' is now more compatible with Bash and POSIX:
3948
3949    'test -t', 'test --help', and 'test --version' now silently exit
3950    with status 0.  To test whether standard output is a terminal, use
3951    'test -t 1'.  To get help and version info for 'test', use
3952    '[ --help' and '[ --version'.
3953
3954    'test' now exits with status 2 (not 1) if there is an error.
3955
3956  wc count field widths now are heuristically adjusted depending on the input
3957  size, if known.  If only one count is printed, it is guaranteed to
3958  be printed without leading spaces.
3959
3960  Previously, wc did not align the count fields if POSIXLY_CORRECT was set,
3961  but POSIX did not actually require this undesirable behavior, so it
3962  has been removed.
3963
3964** Bug fixes
3965
3966  kill no longer tries to operate on argv[0] (introduced in 5.0.1)
3967  Why wasn't this noticed?  Although many tests use kill, none of
3968  them made an effort to avoid using the shell's built-in kill.
3969
3970  '[' invoked with no arguments no longer evokes a segfault
3971
3972  rm without --recursive (aka -r or -R) no longer prompts regarding
3973  unwritable directories, as required by POSIX.
3974
3975  uniq -c now uses a SPACE, not a TAB between the count and the
3976  corresponding line, as required by POSIX.
3977
3978  expr now exits with status 2 if the expression is syntactically valid,
3979  and with status 3 if an error occurred.  POSIX requires this.
3980
3981  expr now reports trouble if string comparison fails due to a collation error.
3982
3983  split now generates suffixes properly on EBCDIC hosts.
3984
3985  split -a0 now works, as POSIX requires.
3986
3987  'sort --version' and 'sort --help' fail, as they should
3988  when their output is redirected to /dev/full.
3989
3990  'su --version > /dev/full' now fails, as it should.
3991
3992** Fewer arbitrary limitations
3993
3994  cut requires 97% less memory when very large field numbers or
3995  byte offsets are specified.
3996
3997
3998* Major changes in release 5.0.1 (2003-07-15):
3999
4000** New programs
4001- new program: '[' (much like 'test')
4002
4003** New features
4004- head now accepts --lines=-N (--bytes=-N) to print all but the
4005  N lines (bytes) at the end of the file
4006- md5sum --check now accepts the output of the BSD md5sum program, e.g.,
4007  MD5 (f) = d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e
4008- date -d DATE can now parse a DATE string like May-23-2003
4009- chown: '.' is no longer recognized as a separator in the OWNER:GROUP
4010  specifier on POSIX 1003.1-2001 systems.  If chown *was not* compiled
4011  on such a system, then it still accepts '.', by default.  If chown
4012  was compiled on a POSIX 1003.1-2001 system, then you may enable the
4013  old behavior by setting _POSIX2_VERSION=199209 in your environment.
4014- chown no longer tries to preserve set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits;
4015  on some systems, the chown syscall resets those bits, and previous
4016  versions of the chown command would call chmod to restore the original,
4017  pre-chown(2) settings, but that behavior is problematic.
4018  1) There was a window whereby a malicious user, M, could subvert a
4019  chown command run by some other user and operating on files in a
4020  directory where M has write access.
4021  2) Before (and even now, on systems with chown(2) that doesn't reset
4022  those bits), an unwary admin. could use chown unwittingly to create e.g.,
4023  a set-user-ID root copy of /bin/sh.
4024
4025** Bug fixes
4026- chown --dereference no longer leaks a file descriptor per symlink processed
4027- 'du /' once again prints the '/' on the last line
4028- split's --verbose option works once again [broken in 4.5.10 and 5.0]
4029- tail -f is no longer subject to a race condition that could make it
4030  delay displaying the last part of a file that had stopped growing.  That
4031  bug could also make tail -f give an unwarranted 'file truncated' warning.
4032- du no longer runs out of file descriptors unnecessarily
4033- df and 'readlink --canonicalize' no longer corrupt the heap on
4034  non-glibc, non-solaris systems
4035- 'env -u UNSET_VARIABLE' no longer dumps core on non-glibc systems
4036- readlink's --canonicalize option now works on systems like Solaris that
4037  lack the canonicalize_file_name function but do have resolvepath.
4038- mv now removes 'a' in this example on all systems: touch a; ln a b; mv a b
4039  This behavior is contrary to POSIX (which requires that the mv command do
4040  nothing and exit successfully), but I suspect POSIX will change.
4041- date's %r format directive now honors locale settings
4042- date's '-' (no-pad) format flag now affects the space-padded-by-default
4043  conversion specifiers, %e, %k, %l
4044- fmt now diagnoses invalid obsolescent width specifications like '-72x'
4045- fmt now exits nonzero when unable to open an input file
4046- tsort now fails when given an odd number of input tokens,
4047  as required by POSIX.  Before, it would act as if the final token
4048  appeared one additional time.
4049
4050** Fewer arbitrary limitations
4051- tail's byte and line counts are no longer limited to OFF_T_MAX.
4052  Now the limit is UINTMAX_MAX (usually 2^64).
4053- split can now handle --bytes=N and --lines=N with N=2^31 or more.
4054
4055** Portability
4056- 'kill -t' now prints signal descriptions (rather than '?') on systems
4057  like Tru64 with __sys_siglist but no strsignal function.
4058- stat.c now compiles on Ultrix systems
4059- sleep now works on AIX systems that lack support for clock_gettime
4060- rm now works around Darwin6.5's broken readdir function
4061  Before 'rm -rf DIR' would fail to remove all files in DIR
4062  if there were more than 338.
4063
4064* Major changes in release 5.0 (2003-04-02):
4065- false --help now exits nonzero
4066
4067[4.5.12]
4068* printf no longer treats \x specially when POSIXLY_CORRECT is set
4069* printf avoids buffer overrun with format ending in a backslash and
4070* printf avoids buffer overrun with incomplete conversion specifier
4071* printf accepts multiple flags in a single conversion specifier
4072
4073[4.5.11]
4074* seq no longer requires that a field width be specified
4075* seq no longer fails when given a field width of '0'
4076* seq now accepts " " and "'" as valid format flag characters
4077* df now shows a HOSTNAME: prefix for each remote-mounted file system on AIX 5.1
4078* portability tweaks for HP-UX, AIX 5.1, DJGPP
4079
4080[4.5.10]
4081* printf no longer segfaults for a negative field width or precision
4082* shred now always enables --exact for non-regular files
4083* du no longer lists hard-linked files more than once
4084* du no longer dumps core on some systems due to "infinite" recursion
4085  via nftw's use of the buggy replacement function in getcwd.c
4086* portability patches for a few vendor compilers and 64-bit systems
4087* du -S *really* now works like it did before the change in 4.5.5
4088
4089[4.5.9]
4090* du no longer truncates file sizes or sums to fit in 32-bit size_t
4091* work around Linux kernel bug in getcwd (fixed in 2.4.21-pre4), so that pwd
4092  now fails if the name of the working directory is so long that getcwd
4093  truncates it.  Before it would print the truncated name and exit successfully.
4094* 'df /some/mount-point' no longer hangs on a GNU libc system when another
4095  hard-mounted NFS file system (preceding /some/mount-point in /proc/mounts)
4096  is inaccessible.
4097* rm -rf now gives an accurate diagnostic when failing to remove a file
4098  under certain unusual conditions
4099* mv and 'cp --preserve=links' now preserve multiple hard links even under
4100  certain unusual conditions where they used to fail
4101
4102[4.5.8]
4103* du -S once again works like it did before the change in 4.5.5
4104* stat accepts a new file format, %B, for the size of each block reported by %b
4105* du accepts new option: --apparent-size
4106* du --bytes (-b) works the same way it did in fileutils-3.16 and before
4107* du reports proper sizes for directories (not zero) (broken in 4.5.6 or 4.5.7)
4108* df now always displays under 'Filesystem', the device file name
4109  corresponding to the listed mount point.  Before, for a block- or character-
4110  special file command line argument, df would display that argument.  E.g.,
4111  'df /dev/hda' would list '/dev/hda' as the 'Filesystem', rather than say
4112  /dev/hda3 (the device on which '/' is mounted), as it does now.
4113* test now works properly when invoked from a set user ID or set group ID
4114  context and when testing access to files subject to alternate protection
4115  mechanisms.  For example, without this change, a set-UID program that invoked
4116  'test -w F' (to see if F is writable) could mistakenly report that it *was*
4117  writable, even though F was on a read-only file system, or F had an ACL
4118  prohibiting write access, or F was marked as immutable.
4119
4120[4.5.7]
4121* du would fail with more than one DIR argument when any but the last did not
4122  contain a slash (due to a bug in ftw.c)
4123
4124[4.5.6]
4125* du no longer segfaults on Solaris systems (fixed heap-corrupting bug in ftw.c)
4126* du --exclude=FILE works once again (this was broken by the rewrite for 4.5.5)
4127* du no longer gets a failed assertion for certain hierarchy lay-outs
4128  involving hard-linked directories
4129* 'who -r' no longer segfaults when using non-C-locale messages
4130* df now displays a mount point (usually '/') for non-mounted
4131  character-special and block files
4132
4133[4.5.5]
4134* ls --dired produces correct byte offset for file names containing
4135  nonprintable characters in a multibyte locale
4136* du has been rewritten to use a variant of GNU libc's ftw.c
4137* du now counts the space associated with a directory's directory entry,
4138  even if it cannot list or chdir into that subdirectory.
4139* du -S now includes the st_size of each entry corresponding to a subdirectory
4140* rm on FreeBSD can once again remove directories from NFS-mounted file systems
4141* ls has a new option --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir, which
4142  corresponds to the new default behavior when none of -d, -l -F, -H, -L
4143  has been specified.
4144* ls dangling-symlink now prints 'dangling-symlink'.
4145  Before, it would fail with 'no such file or directory'.
4146* ls -s symlink-to-non-dir and ls -i symlink-to-non-dir now print
4147  attributes of 'symlink', rather than attributes of their referents.
4148* Fix a bug introduced in 4.5.4 that made it so that ls --color would no
4149  longer highlight the names of files with the execute bit set when not
4150  specified on the command line.
4151* shred's --zero (-z) option no longer gobbles up any following argument.
4152  Before, 'shred --zero file' would produce 'shred: missing file argument',
4153  and worse, 'shred --zero f1 f2 ...' would appear to work, but would leave
4154  the first file untouched.
4155* readlink: new program
4156* cut: new feature: when used to select ranges of byte offsets (as opposed
4157  to ranges of fields) and when --output-delimiter=STRING is specified,
4158  output STRING between ranges of selected bytes.
4159* rm -r can no longer be tricked into mistakenly reporting a cycle.
4160* when rm detects a directory cycle, it no longer aborts the entire command,
4161  but rather merely stops processing the affected command line argument.
4162
4163[4.5.4]
4164* cp no longer fails to parse options like this: --preserve=mode,ownership
4165* 'ls --color -F symlink-to-dir' works properly
4166* ls is much more efficient on directories with valid dirent.d_type.
4167* stty supports all baud rates defined in linux-2.4.19.
4168* 'du symlink-to-dir/' would improperly remove the trailing slash
4169* 'du ""' would evoke a bounds violation.
4170* In the unlikely event that running 'du /' resulted in 'stat ("/", ...)'
4171  failing, du would give a diagnostic about '' (empty string) rather than '/'.
4172* printf: a hexadecimal escape sequence has at most two hex. digits, not three.
4173* The following features have been added to the --block-size option
4174  and similar environment variables of df, du, and ls.
4175  - A leading "'" generates numbers with thousands separators.
4176    For example:
4177      $ ls -l --block-size="'1" file
4178      -rw-rw-r--    1 eggert   src      47,483,707 Sep 24 23:40 file
4179  - A size suffix without a leading integer generates a suffix in the output.
4180    For example:
4181      $ ls -l --block-size="K"
4182      -rw-rw-r--    1 eggert   src          46371K Sep 24 23:40 file
4183* ls's --block-size option now affects file sizes in all cases, not
4184  just for --block-size=human-readable and --block-size=si.  Fractional
4185  sizes are now always rounded up, for consistency with df and du.
4186* df now displays the block size using powers of 1000 if the requested
4187  block size seems to be a multiple of a power of 1000.
4188* nl no longer gets a segfault when run like this 'yes|nl -s%n'
4189
4190[4.5.3]
4191* du --dereference-args (-D) no longer fails in certain cases
4192* 'ln --target-dir=DIR' no longer fails when given a single argument
4193
4194[4.5.2]
4195* 'rm -i dir' (without --recursive (-r)) no longer recurses into dir
4196* 'tail -c N FILE' now works with files of size >= 4GB
4197* 'mkdir -p' can now create very deep (e.g. 40,000-component) directories
4198* rmdir -p dir-with-trailing-slash/ no longer fails
4199* printf now honors the '--' command line delimiter
4200* od's 8-byte formats x8, o8, and u8 now work
4201* tail now accepts fractional seconds for its --sleep-interval=S (-s) option
4202
4203[4.5.1]
4204* du and ls now report sizes of symbolic links (before they'd always report 0)
4205* uniq now obeys the LC_COLLATE locale, as per POSIX 1003.1-2001 TC1.
4206
4207========================================================================
4208Here are the NEWS entries made from fileutils-4.1 until the
4209point at which the packages merged to form the coreutils:
4210
4211[4.1.11]
4212* 'rm symlink-to-unwritable' doesn't prompt [introduced in 4.1.10]
4213[4.1.10]
4214* rm once again gives a reasonable diagnostic when failing to remove a file
4215    owned by someone else in a sticky directory [introduced in 4.1.9]
4216* df now rounds all quantities up, as per POSIX.
4217* New ls time style: long-iso, which generates YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM.
4218* Any time style can be preceded by "posix-"; this causes "ls" to
4219  use traditional timestamp format when in the POSIX locale.
4220* The default time style is now posix-long-iso instead of posix-iso.
4221  Set TIME_STYLE="posix-iso" to revert to the behavior of 4.1.1 through 4.1.9.
4222* 'rm dangling-symlink' doesn't prompt [introduced in 4.1.9]
4223* stat: remove support for --secure/-s option and related %S and %C format specs
4224* stat: rename --link/-l to --dereference/-L.
4225    The old options will continue to work for a while.
4226[4.1.9]
4227* rm can now remove very deep hierarchies, in spite of any limit on stack size
4228* new programs: link, unlink, and stat
4229* New ls option: --author (for the Hurd).
4230* 'touch -c no-such-file' no longer fails, per POSIX
4231[4.1.8]
4232* mv no longer mistakenly creates links to preexisting destination files
4233    that aren't moved
4234[4.1.7]
4235* rm: close a hole that would allow a running rm process to be subverted
4236[4.1.6]
4237* New cp option: --copy-contents.
4238* cp -r is now equivalent to cp -R.  Use cp -R -L --copy-contents to get the
4239  traditional (and rarely desirable) cp -r behavior.
4240* ls now accepts --time-style=+FORMAT, where +FORMAT works like date's format
4241* The obsolete usage 'touch [-acm] MMDDhhmm[YY] FILE...' is no longer
4242  supported on systems conforming to POSIX 1003.1-2001.  Use touch -t instead.
4243* cp and inter-partition mv no longer give a misleading diagnostic in some
4244    unusual cases
4245[4.1.5]
4246* cp -r no longer preserves symlinks
4247* The block size notation is now compatible with SI and with IEC 60027-2.
4248  For example, --block-size=1MB now means --block-size=1000000,
4249  whereas --block-size=1MiB now means --block-size=1048576.
4250  A missing 'B' (e.g. '1M') has the same meaning as before.
4251  A trailing 'B' now means decimal, not binary; this is a silent change.
4252  The nonstandard 'D' suffix (e.g. '1MD') is now obsolescent.
4253* -H or --si now outputs the trailing 'B', for consistency with the above.
4254* Programs now output trailing 'K' (not 'k') to mean 1024, as per IEC 60027-2.
4255* New df, du short option -B is short for --block-size.
4256* You can omit an integer '1' before a block size suffix,
4257  e.g. 'df -BG' is equivalent to 'df -B 1G' and to 'df --block-size=1G'.
4258* The following options are now obsolescent, as their names are
4259  incompatible with IEC 60027-2:
4260   df, du: -m or --megabytes (use -BM or --block-size=1M)
4261   df, du, ls: --kilobytes (use --block-size=1K)
4262[4.1.4]
4263* df --local no longer lists smbfs file systems whose name starts with //
4264* dd now detects the Linux/tape/lseek bug at run time and warns about it.
4265[4.1.3]
4266* ls -R once again outputs a blank line between per-directory groups of files.
4267    This was broken by the cycle-detection change in 4.1.1.
4268* dd once again uses 'lseek' on character devices like /dev/mem and /dev/kmem.
4269    On systems with the linux kernel (at least up to 2.4.16), dd must still
4270    resort to emulating 'skip=N' behavior using reads on tape devices, because
4271    lseek has no effect, yet appears to succeed.  This may be a kernel bug.
4272[4.1.2]
4273* cp no longer fails when two or more source files are the same;
4274    now it just gives a warning and doesn't copy the file the second time.
4275    E.g., cp a a d/ produces this:
4276    cp: warning: source file `a' specified more than once
4277* chmod would set the wrong bit when given symbolic mode strings like
4278    these: g=o, o=g, o=u.  E.g., 'chmod a=,o=w,ug=o f' would give a mode
4279    of --w-r---w- rather than --w--w--w-.
4280[4.1.1]
4281* mv (likewise for cp), now fails rather than silently clobbering one of
4282    the source files in the following example:
4283    rm -rf a b c; mkdir a b c; touch a/f b/f; mv a/f b/f c
4284* ls -R detects directory cycles, per POSIX.  It warns and doesn't infloop.
4285* cp's -P option now means the same as --no-dereference, per POSIX.
4286    Use --parents to get the old meaning.
4287* When copying with the -H and -L options, cp can preserve logical
4288    links between source files with --preserve=links
4289* cp accepts new options:
4290    --preserve[={mode,ownership,timestamps,links,all}]
4291    --no-preserve={mode,ownership,timestamps,links,all}
4292* cp's -p and --preserve options remain unchanged and are equivalent
4293    to '--preserve=mode,ownership,timestamps'
4294* mv and cp accept a new option: --reply={yes,no,query};  provides a consistent
4295    mechanism to control whether one is prompted about certain existing
4296    destination files.  Note that cp's and mv's -f options don't have the
4297    same meaning: cp's -f option no longer merely turns off '-i'.
4298* remove portability limitations (e.g., PATH_MAX on the Hurd, fixes for
4299    64-bit systems)
4300* mv now prompts before overwriting an existing, unwritable destination file
4301    when stdin is a tty, unless --force (-f) is specified, as per POSIX.
4302* mv: fix the bug whereby 'mv -uf source dest' would delete source,
4303    even though it's older than dest.
4304* chown's --from=CURRENT_OWNER:CURRENT_GROUP option now works
4305* cp now ensures that the set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits are cleared for
4306    the destination file when when copying and not preserving permissions.
4307* 'ln -f --backup k k' gives a clearer diagnostic
4308* ls no longer truncates user names or group names that are longer
4309    than 8 characters.
4310* ls's new --dereference-command-line option causes it to dereference
4311  symbolic links on the command-line only.  It is the default unless
4312  one of the -d, -F, or -l options are given.
4313* ls -H now means the same as ls --dereference-command-line, as per POSIX.
4314* ls -g now acts like ls -l, except it does not display owner, as per POSIX.
4315* ls -n now implies -l, as per POSIX.
4316* ls can now display dates and times in one of four time styles:
4317
4318  - The 'full-iso' time style gives full ISO-style time stamps like
4319    '2001-05-14 23:45:56.477817180 -0700'.
4320  - The 'iso' time style gives ISO-style time stamps like '2001-05-14 '
4321    and '05-14 23:45'.
4322  - The 'locale' time style gives locale-dependent time stamps like
4323    'touko  14  2001' and 'touko  14 23:45' (in a Finnish locale).
4324  - The 'posix-iso' time style gives traditional POSIX-locale
4325    time stamps like 'May 14  2001' and 'May 14 23:45' unless the user
4326    specifies a non-POSIX locale, in which case it uses ISO-style dates.
4327    This is the default.
4328
4329  You can specify a time style with an option like --time-style='iso'
4330  or with an environment variable like TIME_STYLE='iso'.  GNU Emacs 21
4331  and later can parse ISO dates, but older Emacs versions cannot, so
4332  if you are using an older version of Emacs outside the default POSIX
4333  locale, you may need to set TIME_STYLE="locale".
4334
4335* --full-time is now an alias for "-l --time-style=full-iso".
4336
4337
4338========================================================================
4339Here are the NEWS entries made from sh-utils-2.0 until the
4340point at which the packages merged to form the coreutils:
4341
4342 [2.0.15]
4343* date no longer accepts e.g., September 31 in the MMDDhhmm syntax
4344* fix a bug in this package's .m4 files and in configure.ac
4345 [2.0.14]
4346* nohup's behavior is changed as follows, to conform to POSIX 1003.1-2001:
4347  - nohup no longer adjusts scheduling priority; use "nice" for that.
4348  - nohup now redirects stderr to stdout, if stderr is not a terminal.
4349  - nohup exit status is now 126 if command was found but not invoked,
4350    127 if nohup failed or if command was not found.
4351 [2.0.13]
4352* uname and uptime work better on *BSD systems
4353* pathchk now exits nonzero for a path with a directory component
4354    that specifies a non-directory
4355 [2.0.12]
4356* kill: new program
4357* who accepts new options: --all (-a), --boot (-b), --dead (-d), --login,
4358   --process (-p), --runlevel (-r), --short (-s), --time (-t), --users (-u).
4359   The -u option now produces POSIX-specified results and is the same as
4360   the long option '--users'.  --idle is no longer the same as -u.
4361* The following changes apply on systems conforming to POSIX 1003.1-2001:
4362   - 'date -I' is no longer supported.  Instead, use 'date --iso-8601'.
4363   - 'nice -NUM' is no longer supported.  Instead, use 'nice -n NUM'.
4364  [This change was reverted in coreutils 5.3.1.]
4365* New 'uname' options -i or --hardware-platform, and -o or --operating-system.
4366   'uname -a' now outputs -i and -o information at the end.
4367   New uname option --kernel-version is an alias for -v.
4368   Uname option --release has been renamed to --kernel-release,
4369   and --sysname has been renamed to --kernel-name;
4370   the old options will work for a while, but are no longer documented.
4371* 'expr' now uses the LC_COLLATE locale for string comparison, as per POSIX.
4372* 'expr' now requires '+' rather than 'quote' to quote tokens;
4373    this removes an incompatibility with POSIX.
4374* date -d 'last friday' would print a date/time that was one hour off
4375    (e.g., 23:00 on *thursday* rather than 00:00 of the preceding friday)
4376    when run such that the current time and the target date/time fall on
4377    opposite sides of a daylight savings time transition.
4378    This problem arose only with relative date strings like 'last monday'.
4379    It was not a problem with strings that include absolute dates.
4380* factor is twice as fast, for large numbers
4381 [2.0.11]
4382* setting the date now works properly, even when using -u
4383* 'date -f - < /dev/null' no longer dumps core
4384* some DOS/Windows portability changes
4385 [2.0j]
4386* 'date -d DATE' now parses certain relative DATEs correctly
4387 [2.0i]
4388* fixed a bug introduced in 2.0h that made many programs fail with a
4389 'write error' when invoked with the --version option
4390 [2.0h]
4391* all programs fail when printing --help or --version output to a full device
4392* printf exits nonzero upon write failure
4393* yes now detects and terminates upon write failure
4394* date --rfc-822 now always emits day and month names from the 'C' locale
4395* portability tweaks for Solaris8, Ultrix, and DOS
4396 [2.0g]
4397* date now handles two-digit years with leading zeros correctly.
4398* printf interprets unicode, \uNNNN \UNNNNNNNN, on systems with the
4399  required support;  from Bruno Haible.
4400* stty's rprnt attribute now works on HPUX 10.20
4401* seq's --equal-width option works more portably
4402 [2.0f]
4403* fix build problems with ut_name vs. ut_user
4404 [2.0e]
4405* stty: fix long-standing bug that caused test failures on at least HPUX
4406  systems when COLUMNS was set to zero
4407* still more portability fixes
4408* unified lib/: now that directory and most of the configuration framework
4409  is common between fileutils, textutils, and sh-utils
4410 [2.0d]
4411* fix portability problem with sleep vs lib/strtod.c's requirement for -lm
4412 [2.0c]
4413* fix portability problems with nanosleep.c and with the new code in sleep.c
4414 [2.0b]
4415* Regenerate lib/Makefile.in so that nanosleep.c is distributed.
4416 [2.0a]
4417* sleep accepts floating point arguments on command line
4418* sleep's clock continues counting down when sleep is suspended
4419* when a suspended sleep process is resumed, it continues sleeping if
4420  there is any time remaining
4421* who once again prints whatever host information it has, even without --lookup
4422
4423========================================================================
4424For older NEWS entries for the fileutils, textutils, and sh-utils
4425packages, see ./old/*/NEWS.
4426
4427  This package began as the union of the following:
4428  textutils-2.1, fileutils-4.1.11, sh-utils-2.0.15.
4429
4430========================================================================
4431
4432Copyright (C) 2001-2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
4433
4434Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
4435under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
4436any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
4437Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
4438Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the "GNU Free
4439Documentation License" file as part of this distribution.
4440