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pcredemo.c02-Mar-201215.2 KiB

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pcregrep.c30-Nov-201594.6 KiB

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1README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
4NOTE: This set of files relates to PCRE releases that use the original API,
5with library names libpcre, libpcre16, and libpcre32. January 2015 saw the
6first release of a new API, known as PCRE2, with release numbers starting at
710.00 and library names libpcre2-8, libpcre2-16, and libpcre2-32. The old
8libraries (now called PCRE1) are still being maintained for bug fixes, but
9there will be no new development. New projects are advised to use the new PCRE2
13The latest release of PCRE1 is always available in three alternative formats
16  ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
17  ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
18  ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
20There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
21pcre-dev@exim.org. You can access the archives and subscribe or manage your
22subscription here:
24   https://lists.exim.org/mailman/listinfo/pcre-dev
26Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
27The contents of this README file are:
29  The PCRE APIs
30  Documentation for PCRE
31  Contributions by users of PCRE
32  Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
33  Building PCRE without using autotools
34  Building PCRE using autotools
35  Retrieving configuration information
36  Shared libraries
37  Cross-compiling using autotools
38  Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
39  Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
40  Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
41  Using PCRE from MySQL
42  Making new tarballs
43  Testing PCRE
44  Character tables
45  File manifest
51PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are three sets of
52functions, one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, one for
53the 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values, and one for the
5432-bit library, which processes strings of 32-bit values. The distribution also
55includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
56courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
57C++. Other C++ wrappers have been created from time to time. See, for example:
58https://github.com/YasserAsmi/regexp, which aims to be simple and similar in
59style to the C API.
61The distribution also contains a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for
62the 8-bit library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the
63pcreposix man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that
64this just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions
65themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted,
66and does not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
68The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
69official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
70with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
71an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
72renamed or pointed at by a link.
74If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
75library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
76file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
77ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
78up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
80One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
81-Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
82compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
83effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
84you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
85new names.
88Documentation for PCRE
91If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
92with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
93called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
94documentation is supplied in two other forms:
96  1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
97     doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
98     concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
99     the listing of pcredemo.c and those that summarize individual functions.
100     The other two are the text forms of the section 1 man pages for the
101     pcregrep and pcretest commands. These text forms are provided for ease of
102     scanning with text editors or similar tools. They are installed in
103     <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where <prefix> is the installation prefix
104     (defaulting to /usr/local).
106  2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
107     in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
108     doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
110Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
111releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
112site (see next section).
115Contributions by users of PCRE
118You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
120  ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
122There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
123complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
124Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
125contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
126Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
127in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
129A PCRE user maintains downloadable Windows binaries of the pcregrep and
130pcretest programs here:
132  http://www.rexegg.com/pcregrep-pcretest.html
135Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
138For a non-Unix-like system, please read the comments in the file
139NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD, though if your system supports the use of "configure" and
140"make" you may be able to build PCRE using autotools in the same way as for
141many Unix-like systems.
143PCRE can also be configured using the GUI facility provided by CMake's
144cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc. The file
145NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD has information about CMake.
147PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
148straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
149library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
152Building PCRE without using autotools
155The use of autotools (in particular, libtool) is problematic in some
156environments, even some that are Unix or Unix-like. See the NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
157file for ways of building PCRE without using autotools.
160Building PCRE using autotools
163If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
164in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
166The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure; make;
167make install" (autotools) process.
169To build PCRE on system that supports autotools, first run the "configure"
170command from the PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set
171to the directory where you want the files to be created. This command is a
172standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions
173are supplied in the file INSTALL.
175Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
176this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
177the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
179CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
181This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
182-Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
183under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
185If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
186directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
187into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
189cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
192PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
193possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
194does not have any features to support this.
196There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
197library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
199. By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
200  by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
202  --disable-shared
203  --disable-static
205  (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
207. By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
208  the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you add
209  --enable-pcre32 to the "configure" command, the 32-bit library is also built.
210  If you want only the 16-bit or 32-bit library, use --disable-pcre8 to disable
211  building the 8-bit library.
213. If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
214  the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
215  command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
216  try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
217  try to build the C++ wrapper.
219. If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
220  large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
221  "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
222  architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
223  will be a compile time error.
225. When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
226  you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
228. If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
229  the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
230  or UTF-32 Unicode character strings in the 32-bit library, you must add
231  --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code for handling
232  UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-8 is not included in the relevant library. Even
233  when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
234  enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
235  input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16/32, even when running on EBCDIC
236  platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
237  the same time.
239. There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32
240  independently because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting
241  UTF-16 support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
242  --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
243  that did not support 16-bit or 32-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
244  --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
245  and the other without in the same configuration.
247. If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16/32 character strings, you want to
248  include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
249  character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
250  "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
251  form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
252  are supported.
254. You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
255  of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
256  end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
257  of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
258  is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
259  newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
260  or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
261  --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
263  If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
264  the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
265  LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
266  to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
267  --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
268  failures.
270. By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
271  sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
272  be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
273  to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
274  --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
276. When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
277  storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
278  them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
280  --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
282  on the "configure" command.
284. PCRE has a counter that limits the depth of nesting of parentheses in a
285  pattern. This limits the amount of system stack that a pattern uses when it
286  is compiled. The default is 250, but you can change it by setting, for
287  example,
289  --with-parens-nest-limit=500
291. PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses
292  when matching a pattern. If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match
293  fails. The default is ten million. You can change the default by setting, for
294  example,
296  --with-match-limit=500000
298  on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
299  pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
300  pcreapi man page.
302. There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
303  during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
304  essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
306  --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
308  Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
309  cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
310  sizes in the pcrestack man page.
312. The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
313  this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
314  library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
315  parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
316  the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
317  offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance. In the 32-bit
318  library, the only supported link size is 4.
320. You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
321  pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
322  obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
323  pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
324  build PCRE like this, use
326  --disable-stack-for-recursion
328  on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
329  necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
330  normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
331  successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
332  pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
333  discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
335. For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
336  whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
337  tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
339  --enable-rebuild-chartables
341  a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
342  you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
343  not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
344  pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
346. It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
347  character code (as opposed to ASCII/Unicode) by specifying
349  --enable-ebcdic
351  This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
352  when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
353  both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16/32. There is a second option, --enable-ebcdic-nl25,
354  which specifies that the code value for the EBCDIC NL character is 0x25
355  instead of the default 0x15.
357. In environments where valgrind is installed, if you specify
359  --enable-valgrind
361  PCRE will use valgrind annotations to mark certain memory regions as
362  unaddressable. This allows it to detect invalid memory accesses, and is
363  mostly useful for debugging PCRE itself.
365. In environments where the gcc compiler is used and lcov version 1.6 or above
366  is installed, if you specify
368  --enable-coverage
370  the build process implements a code coverage report for the test suite. The
371  report is generated by running "make coverage". If ccache is installed on
372  your system, it must be disabled when building PCRE for coverage reporting.
373  You can do this by setting the environment variable CCACHE_DISABLE=1 before
374  running "make" to build PCRE. There is more information about coverage
375  reporting in the "pcrebuild" documentation.
377. The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
378  requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
379  libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
380  specifying one or both of
382  --enable-pcregrep-libz
383  --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
385  Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
387. The default size (in bytes) of the internal buffer used by pcregrep can be
388  set by, for example:
390  --with-pcregrep-bufsize=51200
392  The value must be a plain integer. The default is 20480.
394. It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
395  or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
397  --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
399  If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
400  the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
401  Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
402  pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
403  avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
405  Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
406  build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
407  library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
408  unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
409  to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
410  the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
411  with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
412  with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
413  messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
414  this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
416The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
418. Makefile             the makefile that builds the library
419. config.h             build-time configuration options for the library
420. pcre.h               the public PCRE header file
421. pcre-config          script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
422                         that were set for "configure"
423. libpcre.pc         ) data for the pkg-config command
424. libpcre16.pc       )
425. libpcre32.pc       )
426. libpcreposix.pc    )
427. libtool              script that builds shared and/or static libraries
429Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
430names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
431have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
432or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
434When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
435files are also built:
437. libpcrecpp.pc        data for the pkg-config command
438. pcrecpparg.h         header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
439. pcre_stringpiece.h   header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
441The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
442script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
443contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
445Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds the the libraries
446libpcre, libpcre16 and/or libpcre32, and a test program called pcretest. If you
447enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
448built as well.
450If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
451built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
452it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
453libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
454pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
456The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
457tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
459You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
460system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
461<prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
463  Commands (bin):
464    pcretest
465    pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
466    pcre-config
468  Libraries (lib):
469    libpcre16     (if 16-bit support is enabled)
470    libpcre32     (if 32-bit support is enabled)
471    libpcre       (if 8-bit support is enabled)
472    libpcreposix  (if 8-bit support is enabled)
473    libpcrecpp    (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
475  Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
476    libpcre16.pc
477    libpcre32.pc
478    libpcre.pc
479    libpcreposix.pc
480    libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
482  Header files (include):
483    pcre.h
484    pcreposix.h
485    pcre_scanner.h      )
486    pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
487    pcrecpp.h           )
488    pcrecpparg.h        )
490  Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
491    pcregrep.1
492    pcretest.1
493    pcre-config.1
494    pcre.3
495    pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
497  HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
498    index.html
499    *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
501  Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
502    AUTHORS
503    COPYING
504    ChangeLog
505    LICENCE
506    NEWS
507    README
508    pcre.txt         (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
509    pcretest.txt     the pcretest man page
510    pcregrep.txt     the pcregrep man page
511    pcre-config.txt  the pcre-config man page
513If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
514This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
515remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
518Retrieving configuration information
521Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
522recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
524  pcre-config --version
526prints the version number, and
528  pcre-config --libs
530outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
531included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
532having to remember too many details.
534The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
535about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
536single command is used. For example:
538  pkg-config --cflags pcre
540The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
544Shared libraries
547The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
548as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
549support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
550"configure" process.
552The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
553libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
554built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
555libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
556you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
557automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
558installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
559use the uninstalled libraries.
561To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
562configuring it. For example:
564./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
566Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
567build only shared libraries.
570Cross-compiling using autotools
573You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
574order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
575specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
576file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
577character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
578because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
581When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
582by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
583that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
584a problem.
586If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
587move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
588run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
589Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
592Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
595Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
596"configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
597environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
599Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
600needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
601option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
602use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
603running the "configure" script:
605  CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
608Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
611The following error may occur when compiling with native compilers in the Tru64
612operating system:
614  CXX    libpcrecpp_la-pcrecpp.lo
615cxx: Error: /usr/lib/cmplrs/cxx/V7.1-006/include/cxx/iosfwd, line 58: #error
616          directive: "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to
617          override default - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
618#error "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to override default
619- see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
621This may be followed by other errors, complaining that 'namespace "std" has no
622member'. The solution to this is to add the line
624#define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM 1
626to the config.h file.
629Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
632A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
633Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
635  Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
636  Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
639Using PCRE from MySQL
642On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
643of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
644There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
646  http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
649Making new tarballs
652The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
653zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
654build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
656If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
657should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
658script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
661Testing PCRE
664To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix-like system, run the RunTest script.
665There is another script called RunGrepTest that tests the options of the
666pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is built, three test programs
667called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest
668are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another test program called
669pcre_jit_test is built.
671Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
672"make test". For other environments, see the instructions in
675The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
676own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
677directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
678testoutput files. RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output
679from pcretest. Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working
680files in some tests.
682Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options were selected. For
683example, the tests for UTF-8/16/32 support are run only if --enable-utf was
684used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
686Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
687run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
688tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
689done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
690this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
691This testing can be suppressed by putting "nojit" on the RunTest command line.
693The entire set of tests is run once for each of the 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit
694libraries that are enabled. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
695RunTest with either the -8, -16 or -32 option.
697If valgrind is installed, you can run the tests under it by putting "valgrind"
698on the RunTest command line. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test
699files, give their numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
701  RunTest 2 7 11
703You can also specify ranges of tests such as 3-6 or 3- (meaning 3 to the
704end), or a number preceded by ~ to exclude a test. For example:
706  Runtest 3-15 ~10
708This runs tests 3 to 15, excluding test 10, and just ~13 runs all the tests
709except test 13. Whatever order the arguments are in, the tests are always run
710in numerical order.
712You can also call RunTest with the single argument "list" to cause it to output
713a list of tests.
715The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
716that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
717first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
719The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
720pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
721detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
722wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
725If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
726character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
727cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
728isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
729[:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
730this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
731listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
732test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
733bug in PCRE.
735The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
736set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
737default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
738running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
739the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
740in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
741is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
743  ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
745in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
746despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
748[If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
749work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
750RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
751Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
752document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
754The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16/32 support and error handling and
755internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
756sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
758The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
759matching function, in non-UTF-8/16/32 mode, UTF-8/16/32 mode, and UTF-8/16/32
760mode with Unicode property support, respectively.
762The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
763run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
764change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
766The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
767test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
768features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
770The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
771the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16/32-bit
772mode. These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are
773for general cases, UTF-8/16/32 support, and Unicode property support,
776The twentieth test is run only in 16/32-bit mode. It tests some specific
77716/32-bit features of the DFA matching engine.
779The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16/32-bit mode, when
780the link size is set to 2 for the 16-bit library. They test reloading
781pre-compiled patterns.
783The twenty-third and twenty-fourth tests are run only in 16-bit mode. They are
784for general cases, and UTF-16 support, respectively.
786The twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth tests are run only in 32-bit mode. They are
787for general cases, and UTF-32 support, respectively.
790Character tables
793For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
794whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
795pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
796concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
797of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
798passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
800The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
801default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
802tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
803for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
804program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
805handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
806build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
807your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
808the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
809you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
810automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
811pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
814When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
815it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
816attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
817system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
818set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
819locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
820program by hand with the -L option. For example:
822  ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
824The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
825respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
826digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
827building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
828than 256.
830The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
833    1   white space character
834    2   letter
835    4   decimal digit
836    8   hexadecimal digit
837   16   alphanumeric or '_'
838  128   regular expression metacharacter or binary zero
840You should not alter the set of characters that contain the 128 bit, as that
841will cause PCRE to malfunction.
844File manifest
847The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
848given as pcre[16|32]_xxx it means that there are three files, one with the name
849pcre_xxx, one with the name pcre16_xx, and a third with the name pcre32_xxx.
851(A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
853  dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
854                          when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
856  pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
857                          coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
858                          specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
860  pcreposix.c                )
861  pcre[16|32]_byte_order.c   )
862  pcre[16|32]_compile.c      )
863  pcre[16|32]_config.c       )
864  pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec.c     )
865  pcre[16|32]_exec.c         )
866  pcre[16|32]_fullinfo.c     )
867  pcre[16|32]_get.c          ) sources for the functions in the library,
868  pcre[16|32]_globals.c      )   and some internal functions that they use
869  pcre[16|32]_jit_compile.c  )
870  pcre[16|32]_maketables.c   )
871  pcre[16|32]_newline.c      )
872  pcre[16|32]_refcount.c     )
873  pcre[16|32]_string_utils.c )
874  pcre[16|32]_study.c        )
875  pcre[16|32]_tables.c       )
876  pcre[16|32]_ucd.c          )
877  pcre[16|32]_version.c      )
878  pcre[16|32]_xclass.c       )
879  pcre_ord2utf8.c            )
880  pcre_valid_utf8.c          )
881  pcre16_ord2utf16.c         )
882  pcre16_utf16_utils.c       )
883  pcre16_valid_utf16.c       )
884  pcre32_utf32_utils.c       )
885  pcre32_valid_utf32.c       )
887  pcre[16|32]_printint.c     ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
888                             )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
890  pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
891  pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
892  pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
893  sljit/*                 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
894  ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
896  config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
898  pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
899  pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
900  pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
901  pcrecpp.cc              )
902  pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
904  pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
905                            C++ stringpiece functions
906  pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
908(B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
910  pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
911  pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
912  pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
914(C) Auxiliary files:
916  132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
917  AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
918  ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
919  CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
920  Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
921  HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
922  INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
923  LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
924  COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
925  Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
926                          )   "configure"
927  Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
928                          )   Makefile.in
929  NEWS                    important changes in this release
930  NON-UNIX-USE            the previous name for NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
931  NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD     notes on building PCRE without using autotools
932  PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
933  README                  this file
934  RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
935  RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
936  aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
937  config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
938  config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
939  configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
940  configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
941                          )   "configure" and config.h
942  depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
943                          )   automake
944  doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
945  doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
946  doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
947  doc/html/*              HTML documentation
948  doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
949  doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
950  doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
951  install-sh              a shell script for installing files
952  libpcre16.pc.in         template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
953  libpcre32.pc.in         template for libpcre32.pc for pkg-config
954  libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
955  libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
956  libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
957  ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
958  missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
959                          )   installing, generated by automake
960  mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
961  perltest.pl             Perl test program
962  pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
963  pcre_jit_test.c         test program for the JIT compiler
964  pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
965  pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
966  pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
967  testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
968  testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
969  testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
970  testdata/*              other supporting test files
972(D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
975  cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
976  cmake/FindEditline.cmake
977  cmake/FindReadline.cmake
978  CMakeLists.txt
979  config-cmake.h.in
981(E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
983  makevp.bat
984  makevp_c.txt
985  makevp_l.txt
986  pcregexp.pas
988(F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
990  pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
991                          )   for use in non-"configure" environments
992  config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
993                          )   environments
995(F) Miscellaneous
997  RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
999Philip Hazel
1000Email local part: ph10
1001Email domain: cam.ac.uk
1002Last updated: 10 February 2015